• Dietary Requirements for Parkinson’s Disease-A Review

    By AR. Mullaicharam, K. Senthil Kumari, P. J. Joseph Francis, Mr. Maheswaran-
    (566) (24)

    Parkinson’s disease is a gradually growing abnormality of the CNS (central nervous system). There is no definite causation and cure for this disease is known till date. It is a chronic disease and it mainly affects that portion, which is associated with the movement. There is no known remedy till date that can cure Parkinson’s disease (PD). The changing diet protocols for Parkinson’s disease works by restoring the normal biochemical level of the human body and also to promote good and healthy lifestyle. The most promising approach appears to be the use of antioxidants to slow the oxidation and damage to the substantia nigra. The most excellent diet guidance for most people with Parkinson's to have the right balance of nutrients from different food groups. That can be achieved by eating a well balanced diet, which will provide adequate levels of vitamins and minerals. It’s possible that additional nutritional approaches may be found in the future.

    Review on Technology Transfer as a Regulatory Aspect with Inclusion of ICH Guidelines

    By Ripal Suthar, Jignesh S. Shah-
    (566) (24)

    Technology transfer in simple terms transfer of the technology in the form of idea, innovation and process etc. for successful technology transfer there is an involvement of the two sites together with its documentation. Here this review paper describes various models proposed for the technology transfer such as qualitative model and quantitative models and there requirements, and it also includes basic principle and goals for the technology transfer.

    Dietary Requirements for Parkinson’s Disease-A Review

    By AR. Mullaicharam, K. Senthil Kumari, P. J. Joseph Francis, Mr. Maheswaran-
    (566) (24)

    Parkinson’s disease is a gradually growing abnormality of the CNS (central nervous system). There is no definite causation and cure for this disease is known till date. It is a chronic disease and it mainly affects that portion, which is associated with the movement. There is no known remedy till date that can cure Parkinson’s disease (PD). The changing diet protocols for Parkinson’s disease works by restoring the normal biochemical level of the human body and also to promote good and healthy lifestyle. The most promising approach appears to be the use of antioxidants to slow the oxidation and damage to the substantia nigra. The most excellent diet guidance for most people with Parkinson's to have the right balance of nutrients from different food groups. That can be achieved by eating a well balanced diet, which will provide adequate levels of vitamins and minerals. It’s possible that additional nutritional approaches may be found in the future.

    Review on Technology Transfer as a Regulatory Aspect with Inclusion of ICH Guidelines

    By Ripal Suthar, Jignesh S. Shah-
    (566) (24)

    Technology transfer in simple terms transfer of the technology in the form of idea, innovation and process etc. for successful technology transfer there is an involvement of the two sites together with its documentation. Here this review paper describes various models proposed for the technology transfer such as qualitative model and quantitative models and there requirements, and it also includes basic principle and goals for the technology transfer.

    An Insight on the Emerging Regulations for Radiopharmaceuticals by Europe and India

    By Shrutay Mehta*, Dilip Maheshwari-
    (566) (24)

    Radiopharmaceuticals are the radioactive substances or radioactive drugs for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. The formulation of radiopharmaceuticals is different from ordinary pharmaceuticals. Many radiopharmaceuticals are released and administered to patients shortly after their production because radiopharmaceuticals may decompose during process and labeling steps due to variation in environmental conditions, indicating serious stability concerns. So, administrative prerequisites must be taken for the formulation of the radiopharmaceuticals. Radiopharmaceuticals production, unlike conventional pharmaceuticals production, is still raw and processing at a full fledged speed. Hence, implementing the cGMP guidelines which are applicable for the drugs industry is both difficult and expensive. The present article introduces radiopharmaceuticals in an effective and useful way. Herein, the radiopharmaceuticals are described as a trustworthy aid for curing the life threatening diseases. It demonstrates a brief investigation of the guidelines constituted by the regulatory bodies for the radiopharmaceuticals. It emphasizes on understanding the mandatory regulations to be taken for the radiopharmaceuticals in various countries. It includes the regulations framed for radiopharmaceuticals by Europe and India. The present work provides information on the guidelines used by Europe and India for the regulation of radiopharmaceuticals by the special committees. The regulations in Europe are stringent whereas, in several countries, like India, the regulations are still to get illumination. It withholds the names of the guidelines in the world to be alluded for the radiopharmaceuticals and the regulatory bodies responsible for the regulation.

    A Review On Chromatographic and Spectrophotometric Methods for Estimation of Dapagliflozin and Glimepiride In Bulk and In Different Dosage Forms

    By Ashish Patel, Dilip Maheshwari*-
    (566) (24)

    Dapagliflozin and Glimepiride are very effectively used as type II diabetes. They very potent inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and inhibiting sodium glucose transport protein 2 and its called SGLT2 inhibitors. They used to enhance glycemic control as well as reduce body weight and systolic & diastolic blood pressure. They are generally administered as tablets. This review entails different methods developed for determination of the Dapagliflozin and Glimepiride like UV-spectroscopy and liquid chromatography.

    Aripiprazole and Clozapine: A Review of Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Method

    By Noopur K. Gandhi, Darshil B. Shah*, Dilip G. Maheshwari-
    (566) (24)

    Aripiprazole and Clozapine are classified as an Atypical Antipsychotics. Aripiprazole primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Clozapine works by changing the actions of chemicals in the brain. It is used to treat severe schizophrenia, or to reduce the risk of suicidal behavior in people with schizophrenia or similar disorders. It is also used in Parkinson’s disease. The clinical and pharmaceutical analysis of these drugs requires effective analytical procedures for quality control and pharmacodyna44mic and pharmacokinetic studies as well as stability study. There are many analytical methods reported so far in the literature for the determination of Aripiprazole and Clozapine in Biological samples and pharmaceutical formulations. This article comprises reviews of analytical methods like Spectrophotometric methods, chromatographic methods.

    Bioanalytical Method Validation: A Quality Assurance Auditor View Point

    By Sachin L. Darkunde*, Rupali N. Borhade-
    (566) (24)

    In the development of medicinal products, bioanalytical methods are used in clinical and non-clinical pharmacokinetic studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of drugs and their metabolites. Drug concentrations determined in biological samples are used for the assessment of characteristics such as in vivo pharmacokinetics (adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion), bioavailability, bioequivalence, and drug-drug interaction. Bioanalytical methods, based on a variety of physico-chemical and biological techniques such as chromatography, immunoassay and mass spectrometry, must be validated prior to and during use to give confidence in the results generated. It is the process used to establish that a quantitative analytical method is suitable for biomedical applications. Any method developed for the analysis of analytes in biological fluids must yield consistent results despite the variations in conditions during the course of a project. An ideal bioanalytical method should include all of the probable effects that are going to occur during the routine analysis of study samples. The present manuscript focuses on the consistent evaluation of the key bioanalytical validation parameters is discussed accuracy, precision, sensitivity, selectivity, limits ofquantification, range, linearity, ruggedness, robustness, and stability. Some of the proposals were made to the validation procedure to encounter the possible situations in the routine study sample analysis. An attempt has been made to understand and explain the bioanalytical method validation for chromatographic assays from the quality assurance auditor viewpoint. A good understanding of the background and principles of the bioanalytical method validation will help the quality assurance personnel to perform their duties in a most effective and focused manner.

    A Review On Analytical Methods For Determination of Losartan Potassium And Pioglitazone In Different Dosage Form

    By Vishva S. Patel*, Dilip G. Maheshwari-
    (566) (24)

    Nowadays antihypertensive drugs like Losartan Potassium and Antidiabetic drugs like Pioglitazone represent the first choice in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Losartan Potassium reduced the degree of proteinuria while Pioglitazone act as efficient insulin sensitizers. Generally the Combination of Losartan Potassium and Pioglitazone are used for patients suffering from the diabetes mellitus which leads to end stage renal disease. This article narrates different chromatographic (HPLC, HPTLC, LC) & different Spectrophotometric method (UV) for Statin class single drug as well as combination with other drug. Thus, this paper will help in the selection and development of proper analytical methodologies for estimation of Losartan Potassium and Pioglitazone to achieve satisfactory results.

    A Review on Saptrangi (Salacia oblonga Wall): A Medicinal Herb

    By Anjali K. Takke*, Rupali B. Bhoje, Savita V. Pol-
    (566) (24)

    Salacia oblonga Wall, a native shrub also known as Saptrangi and Ponkoranti, belongs to the family Celastraceae, is distributed across the world. A large number of chemical constituents such as salacinol, kotalanol, neokotalanol, neosalacinol, and mangiferin are isolated from S. oblonga which show various pharmacological activities. Salacia oblonga Wall is being used in several herbal preparations for treating diabetes and obesity. It possess anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, antiperoxidative, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, nephroprotective and antimutagenic activities. This review focuses on the potential of Salacia oblonga wall in various human diseases and can be used as a promising herbal drug, for the benefit of mankind.

    Ocular Drug Delivery System & Role of Ocular Inserts In Eye Disorder Treatment: A Review

    By Ankur Agrawal*, Lalit Kumar Yadav, Vikash Rathour-
    (566) (24)

    Eye is the organ of human body having main function of vision. Ocular drug delivery is the alternative route for the systemic treatment of disease and also a route for the treatment of eye diseases such as conjunctivitis, keratitis etc. Ocular inserts are the one of the most useful and innovative technique for the treatment of eye diseases by increase contact time and providing control release of drug. This review is generated to provide an overview of ocular drug delivery including role of ocular inserts in treatment of eye disorders.

    A Review On 3d Printed Tablets : A Downloadable Medicine

    By S. Swati, N. Jyothi*, G. Nirmala Jyothi, N. Lakshmi Prasanthi-
    (566) (24)

    3Dimensional (3D)-printing is a rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing is a recent innovative technology that manufacture 3D shapes in a layer by layer method directly by computer aided drug design technology. Computer aided drug design(CADD) is an emerging tool for research and drug development process as it reduce the time taken for the process of drug development and expense. In 3D printing successive layers of material are formed under computer control to create an object. It is having high degree of flexibility over controls over the release of drug which is formulated as in different layers of tablets. 3D printing has an exclusive opportunity for the preparation of personalized medication to patient needs. This review deals with the scope of the 3D printing technology, various methods of preparation and regulatory problems with 3D printing pharmaceuticals.

    Review On Analytical Method for Determination of Sitagliptin Phosphate in Bulk and In Different Dosage Forms

    By Nusratbanu K. Shaikh*, Darshil B. Shah, Dilip G. Maheshwari-
    (566) (24)

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4s), also called as gliptins, are a relatively new class of drugs to treat type 2 diabetes. Sitagliptin phosphate competitively inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). This enzyme breakdown the incretins GLP-1, gastrointestinal hormones released in response to a meal. By preventing GLP-1 inactivation, they are able to increase the secretion of insulin and suppress the release of glucagon by the alpha cells of pancreas. This leads blood glucose level to normal. It also opens new gateways for a personalized medicine in patients with Type 2 diabetes and it also offers various merits when compared to other glucose-lowering agents. Despite they have been commercialized since a few years only, available data obtained in randomized controlled trials are of better quality compared to those available with classical glucose-lowering agents, especially in elderly people who have suffering from renal impairment or at high cardiovascular risk and patients at higher risk of hypoglycemia. But, their remaining uncertainties and controversies that should be resolved by further ongoing large prospective controlled trials and increasing clinical experience combined with a careful post-marketing surveillance. The clinical and pharmaceutical analysis of these drugs requires effective analytical procedures for quality control and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies as well as stability study. There are many analytical methods reported so far in the literature for the determination of Sitagliptin phosphate in Biological samples and pharmaceutical formulations. This article narrates different chromatographic (HPLC, HPTLC, UPLC, LC) & different spectrophotometric method (UV) for Sitagliptin single drug as well as combination with other drug

    A Review on Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana): A Medicinal Plant

    By Smita N. Takarkhede*-
    (566) (24)

    Plants are one of the most important source of medicine. Stevia is perennial herb that belongs to Astaraceae family. It is natural sweetener plant & is 300 times sweeter than cane sugar. It is native to Paraguay & Brazil. It is also called as the sweet herb of paraguay. The major constitutes identified were the steviol glycosides. Its nutritional value benefits both the young & old ones. Stevia is belived to have antiglycemic antiseptic antibacterial, antimicrobial, anticancer activity & also be used in stomach upset, indigesion, weight loss, heart burn, etc. It is expected that it will generate hope for diabetic people who have craze to eat sweet.

    Common Deficiencies Observed by Various Regulatory Agencies

    By Siddhi Shah, Dr. Jignesh Shah*-
    (566) (24)

    More than 50% of the total number of deficiencies related to the manufacturing sections of the Common Technical Document (CTD). Deficiencies related to API, Management of quality, Investigation of deviations, Corrective and preventive actions, Potential for contamination, Supplier and Contractor Audits, Design and Maintenance of equipment, Data integrity issues, Data manipulation, Manufacturing controls, etc., The number and pattern of deficiencies did not change over time. The most frequent critical deficiencies were related to the specific manufacturing process and the key materials used in particular the API starting materials, impact of the API impurity content.

    Effect of Recent Amendment in Drug & Cosmetic Act in India

    By Vishva S. Patel*, Dr. Jignesh Shah-
    (566) (24)

    Globally, every country is the victim of substandard or spurious drugs, which result in life threatening issues, financial loss of consumer and manufacturer and loss in trust on health system. The aim of this enumerative review was to probe the extent on poor quality drugs with their consequences on public health and the preventive measures taken by the Indian pharmaceutical regulatory system. For minimizing spurious drugs or not of standard quality drugs, there is requirement of more strict regulation and legal action against the problem. However, India has taken some preventive steps in the country to fight against the poor quality drugs for protecting and promoting the public health.

    Monoclonal Antibodies Present New Opportunities in Disease Diagnosis and Treatment

    By Jignesh Shah, Jignasha Panchal-
    (566) (24)

    The production of MAbs by hybridoma technol¬ogy was discovered in 1975 by Georges Kohler of West Germany and Cesar Milstein of Argentina. Who developed a technique to fuse splenocyte cells (separated from the spleen of an immunized mouse) with tumorous myeloma cells., our vision for antibodies as tools for research for prevention, detection and treatment of diseases, vaccine production, antigenic characterization of pathogens and in the study of genetic regulation of immune responses and disease susceptibility has been revolutionized. Recently, MAbs have been widely applied in the field of clinical medicine. They are also used in the tissue typing, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, radio immunoassay, immunological intervention with passive antibody, or magic bullet therapy with cytotoxic agents coupled with anti-mouse specific antibody.

    Harmonization in Microbial Limit Test of USP and EP

    By Dr. Dilip Maheshwari, Pragati Vanavi-
    (566) (24)

    The harmonized versions have been published and it’s continuing till both the country is ready for harmonization. Japan is also included in harmonization process. The harmonized chapters do not differ in most case from the drafts published in 2003 .This article briefly describes harmonized USP chapters {61} microbial enumeration , {62} absence of specified micro organism, {1111} microbiological attributes to no sterile pharmaceutical product .The format of USP chapters changes drastically with this harmonization whereas the microbial limit tests were two chapters in USP 29(5,6) they are now modified now in modified version to copy the European version. It is most important to the people who want to carry out the tests in both the country and want to export product in both country. The implementation of the tests was in different schedule in US and in Europe.

    Total Quality Management: The Need of the Hour for Pharmaceutical Industry

    By Setu Patel, Dr. Dilip Maheshwari-
    (566) (24)

    Total quality management play major role starting from initial establishment of a pharmaceutical industry to safe guard the marketed drug. It controls the overall quality system chain of a pharmaceutical product, which is to be purchased and utilized by the public in need.TQM is not un-dimensional approach but is multifaceted in nature. Understanding these facts is essential to promote a successful quality improvement programmed. An integrated approach on all vital components of TQM is required to achieve the desired goal. TQM has been accepted by both service and manufacturing organization, globally as a systemic management approach to meet the competitive challenges. TQM redefines the quality with emphasis on top management commitment and customer satisfactions. Drastic reduction in materials wastage, average saving per year increased and financial losses were minimized, workers were motivated to keep and operate materials with care and prevent wastage, and good team relationship was built among the workman and management. TQM provides the linkage between productivity and quality. The focus of TQM is an Involvement of everyone in organization in continuous improvement, Commitment to satisfy the customers, Participation through teamwork, Commitment and leadership of top management.

    Endometriosis –A New Age Disease

    By Rupali Bhoje*, Smita Takarkhede, Anjali Takke, Savita Pol, R. V. Shete, Madhuri Deshmukh-
    (566) (24)

    Endometriosis is the biological complication that occurs when the lining of the uterus called endometrium grows outside the uterine cavity. It affects females in their reproductive years, and is an estrogen-dependent condition. In US about 5 million women have endometriosis with different symptoms. Endometriosis is known to occur when the lining of the uterus called the endometrium, grows in other places such as fallopian tubes, ovaries or along the pelvis .The major issues that limit the currently available endometriosis treatment are lack of awareness, delay in diagnosis, high cost, long-term treatment and recurrence. The impact includes fertility, sexuality and ability to work, play and personal relationships. Treatment for endometriosis involves pain medication, hormone therapy, surgery, or a combination of both. However to avoid recurrence hysterectomy or total removal of the uterus may be a 'last resort' option.

    WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement & its Status in India

    By Dilip G. Maheshwari*, Sampann Tannk-
    (566) (24)

    The World Trade Conference during the BALI summit of 2013 introduced the Trade Facilitation Agreement, in order to reduce the trade related barriers at international borders. Various customs clearance and cross border formalities have become a major barrier in the ease of trade. WTO introduced the TFA with a view to harmonize and rationalize the trade related documentation and procedures for cross border trading. The TFA, which aims to reduce bureaucracy at borders, has the potential to provide a $1-trillion boost to global economy. India has made its stance clear that it will not easily give in to pressure from the Western world over trade protocols of the World Trade Organization, as was also discussed during the talks in Bali in December 2013. India fears that agreeing to the trade facilitation agreement (TFA) could compromise its own food security. In regarding to the same India through discussion and dispute settlement is on the verge of finalizing and signing to this agreement. Currently it is under consideration as up to what extent should India implement the TFA. Various modifications would be required in the EXIM policy of India to implement the TFA. It is forecasted that Indian Pharmaceutical export would experience a rise of 2 folds in Pharmaceutical exports and also would reach to the nations where currently our manufacturers are facing a large amount of Trade related barrier. Thus signing this agreement will not only streamline the imports to our country but will also enhance the globe limits of Indian Pharmaceuticals.

    A Review on Whole Blood Pyrogen Assay

    By Dilip G. Maheshwari*, Ashish Patel-
    (566) (24)

    The whole blood pyrogen test was first described in journal exactly twenty years ago.it employs the cytokine response of blood monocytes for the detection of microbiological contaminates with the potential to finally replace the still broadly used rabbit test. Its measure the fever reaction following injection of the sample to the animals. LAL which is measure the coagulation in a lysate prepared from blood of the horseshoe crab specifically initiated by endotoxins. Pyrogen detection is important in pharmaceutical industry, laboratories and health care institution. As an alternative to the animal consuming rabbit pyrogen test or limulus amoebocytes lysate test, the monocyte activation test was introduced as a gold standard method in European pharmacopoeia. The monocyte activation test has not gained wide acceptance in practice. We stimulate bovine whole blood with different endotoxin preparation (lipopolysaccharide E. coli) as well as the non-endotoxin pyrogen peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) served as read out. The test is the first solution enabling adequate pyrogen testing of cell therapies, including blood transfusion, and medical device. As the test can quantitatively assess human relevant airborne pyrogens, the contribution of pyrogens to chronic obstructive lung diseases and childhood asthma can for the first time be defined and home and work place safety improved in the future.

    A Short Review on the Anti-Cancer Activities of Natural Polyphenols

    By Karthik Varma, Sreeraj Gopi-
    (566) (24)

    Cancer continues worldwide disease taking the life of individuals irrespective of their age. There are various types of cancer detected by the doctors worldwide. Cancer is a group of diseases caused by loss of cell cycle control. Cancer is associated with abnormal uncontrolled cell growth. The cause of cancer can be external and internal. It can affect any organs of the human being. Plant derived polyphenols plays a vital role in protecting humans from cancerous diseases. Polyphenols play a major role as a powerful natural anti oxidant which can protect the cells. The review focuses on the role of natural polyphenols as an anti cancer agent.

    Needs and Necessity of Polyploidy in Medicinal Plants

    By Rajesh Yadav*, Nita Yadav-
    (566) (24)

    Polyploids are organisms with multiple sets of chromosomes in excess of the diploid number. Polyploidy is common in nature and provides a major mechanism for adaptation and speciation. Approximately 50-70% of angiosperms, which include many crop plants, have undergone polyploidy during their evolutionary process. Flowering plants form polyploids at a significantly high frequency of 1 in every 100,000 plants. Many studies have been carried out to understand the nature of polyploidism. The polyploid condition may bring about several advantages compared to the diploid state. Polyploids often show phenotypes that are not present in their diploid progenitors or exceed the range of the contributing species. Some of these traits may play a role in heterosis or could favor adaptation to new ecological niches. Advances in genomics and sequencing technology may create unprecedented opportunities for discovering and monitoring the molecular effects of polyploidization. Through this review, we provide an overview of technologies and strategies that may allow an in-depth analysis of polyploid genomes. After introducing some basic aspects on the origin and genetics of polyploids, we highlight the main tools available for genome and gene expression analysis and summarize major findings. In the last part of this review, the implications of next generation sequencing are briefly discussed. The accumulation of knowledge on polyploid formation, maintenance, and divergence at whole-genome and subgenome levels will not only help plant biologists to understand how plants have evolved and diversified, but also assist plant breeders in designing new strategies for crop improvement.

    Biological Activity of Pyrimidine Derivatives

    By Sudha Singh *, Shamim Ahmad-
    (566) (24)

    Anti-inflammatory efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been related to their properties as inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. However, recent studies have suggested that variations of the in vivo anti-inflammatory actions among different NSAIDs could not be solely explained by COX inhibition. Here, we have analyzed the effects on T cell activation of novel pyrazole derivatives. Pyrazoles represent a most active classes of compounds possessing a wide spectrum of biological activities. A systematic investigation of this class of heterocyclic lead revealed that pyrazole containing pharmacoactive agents play important role in medicinal chemistry. The prevalence of pyrazole cores in biologically active molecules has stimulated the need for elegant and efficient ways to make these heterocyclic lead. Pyrazole derivatives have a long history of application in agrochemicals and pharmaceutical industry as herbicides and active pharmaceuticals.

    Osmotically Controlled Oral Drug Delivery Systems – A Review

    By Ghanshyam Umaretiya*, Dr. J. R. Chavda*, Dr. J. K. Patel**-
    (566) (24)

    Osmotic drug delivery systems are new approach for a modified release dosage form. Various innovations and patents available for various types of osmotic drug delivery system. The review is concerned with the drug release study of tablets coated with walls of controlled porosity. Drugs can be delivered in a controlled pattern over a long period of time by osmotic process. These devices are the most promising strategy and most reliable controlled drug delivery system as oral drug delivery systems. In this paper, mechanism of osmosis, principle of osmosis, factors affecting drug release, types of pumps and materials used, evaluation, various types of osmotic drug delivery systems and the basic components have been discussed briefly.

    A Comparative Study of Marketing Conditions and Labelling Requirements for Homeopathic Drug in US, Europe and India

    By Pathan Asmatbanu Mehmood Khan, Dilip G. Maheshwari-
    (566) (24)

    India is the country which exporting the homeopathic drug product to the foreign countries like USA, Germany and United Kingdom. 90-95% of homeopathic products are exported to Germany from India. Since 1992-93, Indian Homeopathic product is increasing for USA. India also exports to the developing countries like Russia Ukraine and Sri lanka. For Sri lanka export is increasing since 1992-93. The OTC homeopathic drug products in US the established annual sales are around $ 75 million and exploring up to 15-20% annually. The Federal, Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act standardize as official drugs and its standard in Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of United State (HPUS) and its supplements. According to article 1of Directive 92/73/EC of homeopathic medicinal product means any medicinal product formulated products or substances or composition known as homeopathic stocks according to homeopathic manufacturing process stated in European pharmacopoeia or in absence pharmacopoeia available and currently used in official member states. Central Council for Research in Homeopathy (CCRH) was built up as an independent association in 1978, under the Dept. of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and Govt. of India. The National Institute of Homeopathy (NIH) in Kolkata as a self-governing association under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.

    Phytosomes: An Emerging Nanotechnology For Improved Bioavailability of Phytomedicines – A Review

    By Amudha S, Prabal Kumar Manna, Jeganathan N S, Anbazhagan S-
    (566) (24)

    Novel complexation technique named as `phytosome’ plays an important role to facilitate absorption and improve bioavailability. The delivery of phytomedicine is always challenging due to poor aqueous solubility, poor permeation, low systemic availability and extensive first pass metabolism. Drug molecules from natural sources and dietary soy phospholipids are complexed and generated cell like structures called phytosomes. Phytosome act as a bridge between novel delivery system and conventional delivery system and has effectively enhanced the bioavailability of many popular herbal extracts including milk thistle, Ginko biloba, grape seed, green tea, hawthorn, Ginseng etc and can be developed for various therapeutic uses or as dietary supplements. Current review highlights recent information, on commercial preparation of phytosomes as well as the various other novel approaches for delivery of herbal constituents.

    Hazards in Modern Dentistry – A Review

    By Suvarna Veeranna Biradar, Bhumika Rathore-
    (566) (24)

    Despite numerous advances in recent years in the field of dentistry, many occupational health problems still persists. They include stress and professional burnout, allergies from various materials, musculoskeletal disorders and diseases of peripheral nervous system, Percutaneous Exposure Incidents (PEI),biological hazards, hazards due to nitrous oxide and legal hazards. Dental professionals are constantly exposed to a number of specific occupational hazards. In many cases, this exposure results in diseases which are regarded as occupational illnesses. Based on the relevant literature, this review focuses on the occupational hazards in dentistry. Being unaware of the potential hazards in the work environment makes dental personnel vulnerable to occupational injury and illnesses. Awareness of these occupational hazards and implementation of preventive strategies can provide a safe dental environment of all concerned.

    Sustained Release Drug Delivery System: A Modern Formulation Approach

    By Pooja R. Alli*, Pratima B. Bargaje*, Nilesh S. Mhaske-
    (566) (24)

    Sustained release dosage forms are designed to release a drug at a predetermined rate by maintaining a constant drug level for a specific period of time with minimum side effects. In the recent years, focus on the development of controlled release drug delivery systems has increased. The basic rationale of controlled release drug delivery system optimizes the biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of a drug in such a way that its utility is maximized, side-effects are reduced and cure or control of the condition is achieved, in the shortest possible time by using smallest quantity of drug administered by the most suitable route. There are several advantages of sustained release drug delivery over conventional dosage forms like improved patient compliance due to less frequent drug administration, reduction of fluctuation in steady-state drug levels, maximum utilization of the drug, increased safety margin of potent drug, reduction in healthcare costs through improved therapy, shorter treatment period and less frequency of dosing can be achieved. This review briefly emphasizes about the sustained release drug delivery system characteristics, formulation design and drug release mechanisms.

    Resealed Erythrocytes: A Novel Drug Delivery System

    By Alli P.R.*, Kulat R. B.*, Bhagat B. V-
    (566) (24)

    Now days the research work in the drug development is mainly focusing on targeted drug delivery for better therapeutic effect. Carrier erythrocytes have been evaluated in thousands of drug administration in humans proving safety and efficacy of the treatments. Carrier erythrocytes, resealed erythrocytes loaded by a drug or other therapeutic agents, have been exploited extensively in recent years for both temporally and spatially controlled delivery of a wide variety of drugs and other bioactive agents owing to their remarkable degree of biocompatibility, biodegradability and a series of other potential advantages. Biopharmaceuticals, therapeutically significant peptides and proteins, nucleic acid-based biologicals, antigens and vaccines, are among the recently focused pharmaceuticals for being delivered using carrier erythrocytes. In this review article, the potential applications of erythrocytes in drug delivery have been reviewed with a particular stress on the studies and laboratory experiences on successful erythrocyte loading and characterization of the different classes of biopharmaceuticals.

    A Review: Synthesis And Docking Study of Biologically Active Esters

    By A. P. Rajput* & Sonali A. Patil*-
    (566) (24)

    From many years chemists have been taking interests in synthesizing different kinds of ester derivatives due to their increasing medicinal importance. Lots of newer ester derivatives have different biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tuberculosis, antimicrobial, antifungal etc. Chemists have prepared different bioactive ester drugs by using various methods and also carried out molecular modeling in silico of ester drug candidates with proteins (receptor) to predict bonding interactions of ester drugs with proteins responsible for that particular disease using computational methods. By finding all the results from docking one can predict the biological activities of the compounds under the study.

    Evaluation of Antiproliferative and Antifungal Properties of a Serine Protease Inhibitor in Some Cucurbitaceae Members: A Review

    By Sreenu Barla, Dowluru Svgk Kaladhar,* Narasinga Rao V-
    (566) (24)

    Plants produce complecx set of biological components that acts as active principles. A complete study of protein components provides an understanding about the complex network and the changes of functions within a system. The plant system contains both useful and harmful sources that can act as medicinal sources. The plant proteins are using from the ancient times but the principle understanding about these sources are arised from the modern times. The plant seed and testa in some Cucurbitaceae members as the medicinal sources in the form of protease inhibitors has been provided in the present study. The plant proteins isolated from seed coat is having good antiproliferative and antifungal properties. As the seeds containing testa is using as the edible sources, there is multiple interlinks in the control of various metabolic diseases like cancer. The protease inhibitors are also having good antifungal properties.

    Current Scenario in Indian Regulatory Update: September 2015 – December 2015

    By Khushwant Khatri*, Priyanka Modi, Khushbu Shah-
    (566) (24)

    India has been a hub for conducting various multi centre trials. The conduct of clinical trials in India has been critically reviewed at national and international platforms. While it is imperative that the number of clinical trials increase, the Government is also trying to ensure that the rights and safety of the subjects are protected and the quality of the trials performed in India improve to international standards. The regulatory guidelines in terms of serious adverse events (SAEs) reporting, informed consent, compensation in case of injury or death in clinical trials have been recently modified. It is essential that now all clinical trials conducted in India should as per the International conference of Harmonization-Good Clinical Practices Guidelines (ICH-GCP) for clinical trials and follow the recently amended Schedule Y of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act. This article provides an insight into the recent changes with respect to the regulations of clinical trials and its impact on the clinical research industry in India.

    Osmotic Controlled Drug Delivery Systems: An Overview

    By Sadhana Shahi, Nityanand Zadbuke*, Ajit Jadhav, Santosh Borde-
    (566) (24)

    Osmotic controlled drug delivery systems utilize the principles of osmotic pressure for the controlled delivery of active agent. The delivery rate of zero-order is achievable with these systems. The release rate from these systems is highly predictable and can be programmed by modulating the release control parameters. The drug release from these systems is independent of gastric pH and hydrodynamic conditions. A high degree of in vivo-in vitro correlation (IVIVC) is obtained with osmotically controlled drug delivery systems. In this review various types of osmotic systems, basic components, patent literature and commercially marketed osmotic drug delivery systems are discussed.

    A Review on King of Bitters: Andrographis paniculata

    By Chawla Payal*, Kaur Sukhmandeep, Kaur Arveet, Chawla Amit, Dhawan R.K.-
    (566) (24)

    Kalmegh, The King of Bitter is traditionally used plants in ayurvedic system of medicine.Its biological name is Andrographis paniculata (Nees) belonging to the family Acanthaceae. From the beginning, it has been used in ayurveda as anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Antidaibetic, Antispasmodic, anti-carcinogenic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, hepatoprotective, nematocidal, anti-HIV and in many infectious diseases rangning from malaria to dysentery. Medicinal value of this plan is due to the presence a diterpenoid derivative Angrapholide and Neoandrographolide.Traditionally, its decoction has been used as hepatoprotective in treatment of jaundice.The roots of the plant was used to prepare decoction and thus the chemical acting as hepatoprotective must be present in roots of the plant.

    Ayurveda Medicinal Plants for Treatment of Diabetes in Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur Region - A Review

    By Santosh Kumari Duppala*-
    (566) (24)

    Diabetes is a chronic disease which is affecting worldwide rapidly and number of people affected increasing gradually. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where a person has excessive rise in blood glucose level because it may be due to the cells which do not respond to insulin that is produced in the body or body does not produce required insulin so that prevents body to utilise glucose. As diabetes cannot be cured completely with allopathic medicines hence ayurvedic medicinal plants are commonly used for treatment of diabetes which does not have any side effects. There are several plants used for treatment of diabetes, these are nearly about 800 plants that are having medicinal value and show Anti-Diabetic potential. The lists of common medicinal plants which are used in the treatment of diabetes are as follows: Azadirachta indica, Ficus religiosa, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, Aloevera, Trigonella Foenum-graecum, Cinamomum cassia and Camellia sinesis. The present article gives detailed information about the various medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes which will also help in future studies.

    Recent Developments In Insulin Delivery For The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    By Abhishek Pathak, Manjot Kaur, Dilpreet Singh-
    (566) (24)

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic lifelong condition which affects millions of people in the world. The main cause of this disease is the pancreas will not producing insulin, “a hormone which regulates blood glucose level in the body”, will leads to severe vascular complications and leads to death. The one and only way of survive against this disease is to provide exogenous insulin in our body. The conventional mode of delivering the exogenous insulin is by subcutaneous route by needles or injections which produces painful and invasive therapy leads to poor patient compliance. So various methods are developed for delivering the exogenous insulin in our body like inhaled insulin (Exubera), transdermal patch, insulin infusion pump and insulin sprays and insulin pills are available which uniform maintain blood glucose level in the body for several hours leads to increased patient compliance, So in present review we highlighted the novel methods of insulin delivery for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

    Formulation Strategies to Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Cancer

    By Priya Kapoor, Kuldeep Singh, Dilpreet Singh-
    (566) (24)

    Cancer is the uncontrolled and abnormal cell death that affects millions of people. Various cytotoxic agents are used to treat cancer like taxanes and anthracyclines, but the toxicity and drug resistance against the cancerous cell will produce troublesome which hinders chemotherapy efficacy. Drug resistance is basically associated with increased expression of MDR1 gene that encodes for drug efflux pump known as P-glycoprotein which leads to Multidrug resistance; so to overcome the MDR , various therapeutic agents in combination have become the primary strategy to treat drug resistant cancer, but these combination regimens will lack uniform pharmacokinetic profile results in inconsistent drug uptake leads to poor and erratic bioavailability. Various nanoformulation strategies such as dendrimers, liposomes, Vitamin E based nanomedicines, polymeric nanoparticles, micelles and drug polymer conjugates are emerged as an effective drug delivery system for treatment of drug resistant cancer cells which overcome MDR and improves chemotherapy efficacy. Current review highlighting various formulation strategies to overcome MDR by inhibiting ATP dependent membrane efflux pumps through various mechanisms.

    Critical Survey on the Guidelines under Recommendation of Child Resistant Packaging for Pharmaceutical Products

    By Sangeeta Singh*, Manish K. Gupta-
    (566) (24)

    Child resistant packaging is an integral part of packaging industry. In order to reduce the risk of poisoning in children due to accidental ingestion of hazardous chemicals like over – the – counter (OTC) medications, household items, pesticides & automobile chemicals, led the US Congress to pass the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970 under the authorship of US Senator Frank E. Moss (Politician)1. The introduction of child resistant packaging resulted in considerable drop in the rate of poisoning. Guidelines of various countries help in preventing forty to eighty percent of childhood poisoning. The World Health Organization & UNICEF state that Child Resistant Packaging is one of the best documented success in preventing poisoning in children.

    Solid Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System: A Novel Approach

    By Pushpa B. Salunke*, Rajesh B. Nawale, Amrapali B. Jadhav-
    (566) (24)

    The new chemical entities discovered by the pharmaceutical industry up to 40% to 50% are poorly soluble or lipophilic compounds, which leads to poor oral bioavailability. Currently a number of technologies are available to deal with the poor solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of insoluble drugs. Recently much attention has been paid to lipid based formulations with particular emphasis on self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS), to improve the oral bioavailability of lipophilic drugs. Self emulsifying formulations are mixtures of oils and surfactants, ideally isotropic, and sometimes containing co-solvents, which emulsify spontaneously to produce fine oil-in-water emulsion when introduced into aqueous phase under conditions of gentle agitation. The present review examines the recent advances in Solid SEDDS (S-SEDDS) with regard to the selection of lipid systems for current formulations, solidification techniques by adsorbing agents and the development of solid SE (self-emulsifying) dosage forms and their related problem.

    SMN2 Gene Based Treatments In Spinal Muscular Atrophy- A Review Of Recent Advancements

    By Barun Kumar*, Ravi Prakash-
    (566) (24)

    Spinal muscle atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease with autosomal recessive inheritance which is pathologically characterized by degeneration of α motor neurons from the anterior horn of the spinal cord resulting in muscle weakness, muscle atrophy involving mainly muscles of the trunk. SMA is commonly divided into types 1 through 4. In humans, SMN genes, (SMN1 and SMN2) are located on chromosome 5 in close proximity to each other. It has been assumed that the SMN2 locus is derived from a (evolutionarily) recent duplication event of a genomic region spanning 500 kb. The role of SMN2 gene as a phenotypic modifier of SMA has been studied in great details recently. Each patient affected with SMA retains at least oneSMN2 copy. From this perspective, it can be said that SMA arises due to the inability of SMN2 gene to fully compensate for the lack of functional SMN protein resulting from the mutation of SMN1. In this review article, we will focus on three of the treatment strategies using SMN2 gene which have been used as treatment strategies by various techniques. These strategies are: i) inducing the expression of SMN2, ii) modulating splicing of SMN2 derived transcript, and iii) stabilizing the full length SMN2 derived mRNA and/or protein.

    A Review on Parenteral Controlled Drug Delivery System

    By Pravin Ghagare*, Vandana Patel1, Rohit Gosavi, Yogesh Thengal-
    (566) (24)

    The Parenteral administration route is the most common and efficient for delivery of active drug substances with poor bio-availability and the drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. Drug delivery technology that can reduce the total number of injection throughout the drug therapy period will be truly advantageous not only in terms of compliance, but also to improve the quality of the therapy and also may reduce the dosage frequency. Parenteral drug delivery system seeks to optimize therapeutic index by providing immediate drug to the systemic pool in required quantity to treat– cardiac attacks, respiratory attacks. This article includes preparation, characterization and applications of parenteral controlled drug delivery system.

    Cortical V/S Subcortical Dementias- A Comparative Review of Cognitive Functions

    By Barun Kumar*, Ravi Prakash-
    (566) (24)

    BACKGROUND: The typical clinical features of AD are indicative of cortical dysfunction which are dyscalculia, dysphasias, dyspraxias and agnosias. Parallel to this, the clinical features of subcortical dementias, mainly reflect the subcortical areas affected which usually are personality changes and affective disorders and bradyphrenia. The neuropsychological deficits are also different in these dementias. In present review we will highlight these neuropsychological differences. METHODOLOGY: A detailed search of all the studies of cortical and subcortical dementias was done in all medical databases. All the studies involving neuropsychological aspects of cortical and subcortical dementias were included in the study. Major categories of neuropsychological aspects were separately categorized and compared between the subcortical and cortical dementias. RESULTS: Major neuropsychological categories identified were 1) Executive functions 2) Memory dysfunctions and 3) Perceptuo-motor dysfunctions. In memory, The differential effects of the test format is that in subcortical dementia the main difficulty is in retrieving information while in cortical dementia encoding or storage (or both) are thought to be defective. On the other hand, the visuo motor dysfunctions are far more severe in subcortical as compared to cortical dementias. Its cardinal features are: forgetfulness, i.e., difficulty in retrieving learned material; slowing of mental and motor processes; intellectual deterioration characterized by impaired ability to manipulate acquired knowledge to generate problem solving; impairment of arousal, attention, and motivation and affective changes (depression); and impairment of set-shifting. DISCUSSION: There are significant differences in various neuropsychological domains of cortical and subcortical dementias.

    Virosomes : New Frontier for Targeting Drugs and Biological Molecules

    By Nupur A Inamdar*, Gajanan V Pulgamwar, Kalyani A Jadhav-
    (566) (24)

    Over the last decade, there has been a great revolution in drug delivery technologies. Delivery of drugs and biological molecules using virosomes is a novel technique available these days. Virosomes are the unilamellar phospholipid bilayer vesicles containing virus derived proteins. They show the targeted action by fusing with the target cell. They may be used as vaccines or vehicle for cellular delivery of macromolecules. Along with the delivery of these substances, it also helps in potentiating immune response. The success of virosomal drug delivery depends upon the method of preparation, use of proper detergents and short chain phospholipids, and function of hemagglutinins. Several parameters are studied regarding their morphology, safety, efficacy and stability. It is also observed that virosomes are showing greater target specificity in combating ebola infection. Though it is a novel, effective drug delivery mechanism, advanced research is needed to use virosomes as a powerful tool.

    Nipah Virus (NiV): An Emerging Potential Threat to South East Asia

    By Tank Sampann, Modi Malak ,Soni Sarthak-
    (566) (24)

    Nipah virus is an emerging zoonotic virus that can cause lethal respiratory manifestations and encephalitis. Though originated in Malaysia, scattered infections from nipah virus are found in Thailand, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh and regions of Southeast Asia. Pteropus fruit bats are the natural reservoirs and from them infection can spread to humans and some other animals. This infection can be transmitted from human to other humans as well as from infected pigs to humans. Currently we are at a greater risk of nipah infection due to our limited knowledge, rapid spread, migration activities among people , high case mortality ,inefficient treatment and no vaccines. Diagnosis modalities include ELISA, PCR, immunofluorescence assays and culture of virus. Nipah virus mainly affects respiratory tract causing influenza like symptoms but some patients also present with encephalitis which leads to ultimate death. As the case fatality rate is high and treatment is mainly supportive, prevention plays the main role in controlling infection.

    Retinoblastoma –A Molecular Dream

    By Pramod Singh Khatri*-
    (566) (24)

    Retinoblastoma is an uncommon eye tumor of adolescence that emerges in the retina. It is the most well-known intraocular distortion of childhood; with an occurrence of 1/20,000–25,000 live births. The two most recurrent manifestations uncovering retinoblastoma are leukocoria and strabismus. Iris rubeosis, hypopyon, hyphema, buphthalmia, orbital cellulites and exophthalmia might likewise be detected. Sixty five percent of retinoblastomas are unilateral and mostly are non-genetic (identified within two year). Retinoblastoma is bilateral in 35% of cases (identified within one year). All bilateral and multifocal unilateral structures are innate. Innate retinoblastoma constitutes a cancer predisposition disorder: a subject unavoidably conveying a RB1 gene mutation has 90% risk of developing retinoblastoma but on the other hand are at higher risk of developing various cancers. Identification is made by fundoscopy, Ultrasound, MRI and CT scan. Managing patients with retinoblastoma must consider the different aspects of the malady: the visual impairment, the conceivably hereditary nature of the illness and the life-time risk.

    Prostate Cancer Stem Cell –Future Outlook

    By Pramod Singh Khatri*-
    (566) (24)

    Prostate cancer is presently a typical ailment in men more than 50 years old. Medicinal treatments for prostate cancer are in light of disclosures from the mid-twentieth century, and in the long term are seldom curative. Most medicines are coordinated towards an androgen receptor expressing, highly proliferative target cell, which does undoubtedly structure the greater part of cells in a prostate tumor. Notwithstanding, by conjuring the presence of a cancer stem cell which, in the same way as typical epithelial stem cell in the prostate, does not represent androgen receptor and is generally silent, the observed imperviousness to most therapeutic treatments can be clarified. The phenotype of the prostate cancer stem cell is that of a basal cell and culture derived from cancer, yet not benign tissues, express a variety of prostate cancer related RNAs. Moreover, stem cells filtered on the premise of alpha2beta1 high integrin and CD133 cell surface antigen articulation, from a culture of Gleason 4 (2+2) prostate tumor (P4E6), had the capacity to form numerous intra prostatic tumors in naked mice when joined orthotopically in a matrigel attachment containing human prostatic stroma. The final tumors reexpressed androgen receptor and showed a histology like that of a Gleason 4 cancer. The presence of prostate cancer stem cells offers a hypothetical clarification for a large portion of the persevering vulnerabilities encompassing the etiology and treatment of the most usually diagnosed tumor in US men. The investigation of cancer stem cells in prostate, is basically reliant on the accessibility of untainted cell population, a circumstance entangled by the heterogeneity of prostate tumors. Be that as it may, choice of cells with a CD133+/α2β1 integrin/ CD44+ phenotype improves for a tumor-starting population from human prostate cancer. Among the most squeezing needs is for persisting treatment in subjects who have encountered failure of hormonal medicines. Since the putative cancer stem cell do ‘not express androgen receptor, it is liable to be immune from most androgen-based treatments, and an inalienable hereditary instability would empower the tumor to develop the new variations present in hormone-refractory disease. Prostate cancer stem cell have a special gene articulation signature that can likewise be identified with Gleason grade and patient result. The shortage of cancer stem cell in a prostate tumor will presumably confine their handiness in cancer finding and visualization. Be that as it may, the rise of new stem cell therapeutic targets not just will oblige new tests for efficacy (due to their generally silent nature), additionally holds genuine promise of more enduring medicines to enlarge those presently coordinated against the remaining tumor cells, which embody 99.9% of tumor mass, however incomprehensibly have a poor tumor-initiating limitation.

    Molecular Imprinting: An Emerging Technology

    By Jesika Rane*, Priyanka Adhikar, Dr. R.L. Bakal-
    (566) (24)

    This article gives the recent developments in molecular imprinting for proteins. Currently bio-macromolecules such as antibodies and enzymes are mainly employed for protein recognition purposes. However, such bio-macromolecules are sometimes difficult to find and/or produce, therefore, receptor-like synthetic materials such as protein-imprinted polymers have been intensively studied as substitutes for natural receptors. Recent advances in protein imprinting shown here demonstrate the possibility of this technique as a future technology of protein recognition. This review summarizes the previous and current literature regarding the analytical tools employed for characterization of synthesized MIPs. It is our expectation that this will facilitate researchers to plan their own sophisticated analytical pathway for characterization of MIPs in a more logical and structured fashion, and to begin to appreciate the limitations of the present approaches in this molecularly complex area.

    A Short Review on the Medicinal Properties of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract Powder

    By Sreeraj Gopi*, Karthik Varma-
    (566) (24)

    Moringa Oleifera, also known as Tree of life ,clarifier tree, Miracle tree, horseradish tree and drumstick tree, Many refer to this tree as "nutritional dynamite,“ as it contains enormous amounts of important nutrients like iron, calcium and Vitamin A. The leaf extract of Moringa poses many valuable pharmacological properties. The leaf extract possess many valuable health benefits also. This review focuses the potential of using Moringa Oleifera leaf extract powder in treating male sexual dysfunctions.

    A Review on Atherosclerosis

    By Dipti Sharad Pawar*-
    (566) (24)

    Atherosclerosis is the condition in which deposition of cholesterol on inner linings of arteries take place. In atherosclerosis plaque builds up in a series of stages inside arteries resulting into obstruction to blood flow. Atherosclerosis is the most leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Mostly arteries in the brain, heart, arms, legs & pelvis are affected. The disease is responsible for heart attacks, strokes, aortic aneurysms & peripheral vascular disease. This inflammatory disease is precipitated by elevated levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in blood. Endothelial dysfunction is the main stimuli for development of disease. Risk factors of atherosclerosis are both unmodifiable& modifiable which are important in assessment and should be monitored beginning in childhood, even in asymptomatic patients. . The plaques can be predicted by invasive & non-invasive imaging techniques. The blockages are treated by coronary artery bypass, heart catheterization. Medicines along with lifestyle improvement are also useful in management of atherosclerosis. Successful treatment minimizes chances of cardiovascular events, morbidity & mortality.

    A Review On Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC)

    By Anagha S. Patil*-
    (566) (24)

    In recent years, significant technological advances have been made in particle chemistry performance, system optimization, detector design, and data processing and control. When brought together, the individual achievements in each discipline have created a step-function improvement in chromatographic performance. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) is a new category of analytical separation science that retains the practicality and principles of HPLC, while increasing the overall interlaced attributes of speed, sensitivity and resolution. UPLC can be regarded as a new direction for liquid chromatography. UPLC improves in three areas: “speed, resolution and sensitivity”. In this system uses fine particles (less than 2.5 μm) so decrease the length of column, saves time and reduces solvent consumption.

    Leptin Association in Disease and Disorders

    By Madhukar Saxena*, Dinesh Raj Modi-
    (566) (24)

    Leptin, a peptide molecule first identified through its role in the hypothalamus regulating food intake and body weight. In addition to the adipose tissue, leptin is expressed in lymphoid tissues, placenta, ovaries, mammary epithelium and bone marrow. Leptin binds to leptin receptor (ObR), which was first isolated from the choroid plexus by expression cloning strategies. ObRs (6 isoforms) are located in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues and show structural similarity with cytokines. Most of the physiological actions of leptin including feeding and energy balance. The other roles of leptin are in reproduction, thermogenesis, synaptic plasticity and neuroprotective effects. In conclusion, this review discusses leptinsignaling in different brain areas and sheds light on the involvement of leptin in neurodegenerative disorders. Leptin has neuroplastic and neurotrophic effects and can be definitely useful for treating such diseases. Leptin may have an additional benefit as an insulin sensitizer but, further research is required to elucidate whether leptin sensitizers will be useful and if leptin has a major role in treating brain disorders. Better understanding of the mechanisms mediating leptin's neurodevelopmental actions and increased knowledge about the vulnerability of the brain to leptin level changes is needed.

    Human Lung Cancer: Molecular Inconsistencies and Therapeutic Consequences

    By Pramod Singh Khatri*, Kashish Agarwal-
    (566) (24)

    Human Lung cancer is the main reason for cancer related death and hence a significant health issue. The effectiveness of current therapy modalities for lung cancer depends firmly on the time of opinion, with better risks of survival if a tumour has been identified at an early stage. Along these lines, there is a pressing requirement for fast and effective early recognition method. Albeit most lung malignancies are the outcome of smoking, a significant fraction of molecular epidemiological studies point to high-predominance, low-penetrance genetic polymorphisms as modifiers of natural lung cancer hazard. Recently the genomics field has additionally made critical advances in distinguishing genetic lesions that can now be reaped with the objective of recognizing novel biomarkers for lung cancer. Novel high-throughput, quantitative measures for the discovery of DNA methylation or histone tail alterations are currently applied, to look for changes in the lung cancer genome and will distinguish novel cancer related genes that may get to be alluring focuses for treatment, give new understanding into the science of lung cancers, and could likewise get to be valuable biomarkers for the early recognition of lung cancer in saliva, or may be utilized as prognostic biomarkers.

    The Cogency and Impregnability of Acupuncture Therapy in Healing Ailment: A Critical Investigation

    By Pramod Singh Khatri, Dr.Oyunbileg-
    (566) (24)

    Over its 2500 years of health improvement, an abundance of experience has aggregated in the act of acupuncture, confirming the extensive variety of maladies and conditions that can be successfully treated with this methodology. Dissimilar to numerous other conventional techniques for treatment, which have a tendency to be particular to their national or cultural context, acupuncture has been utilized all through the world, especially since the 1970s. Doctors rehearsing acupuncture in diverse nations were welcome to recognize the conditions that may advantage from this treatment. The members drew up a rundown of 43 suitable maladies. In this distribution article the expression "acupuncture" is utilized as a part of its wide sense to incorporate customary body needling, moxibustion, electro-acupuncture, laser acupuncture, microsystem acupuncture, for example, ear, face, hand and scalp acupuncture, and pressure point massage . The points of interest of acupuncture are that it is straightforward, helpful and has few contraindications. In spite of the fact that the achievement rate of acupuncture treatment in treating kidney stones, for instance, is affirmed by similar studies with different treatments, it is in no way, shape or form as high as that of surgical intercession. In any case, acupuncture treatment of kidney stones is still justified even despite prescribing due to its straightforwardness, which makes it more adequate to patients. Various instance uncover that the regulatory activity of acupuncture is bi-directional. Acupuncture brings down the pulse in patients with hypertension and lifts it in patients with hypotension; increments gastric discharge in patients with hypoacidity, and reductions it in patients with hyperacidity; and standardizes intestinal motility under X-ray observation in patients with either spastic colitis or intestinal hypotonia.

    Phytonutrients: Add Colors To Diet For Better Health

    By Dr Chidananda K N*, Dr K Jagadeesh-
    (566) (24)

    Fruits and vegetables are major constituents of our daily diet. They are important sources of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals. Other than these ingredients they also contain bioactive substances called as phytonutrients or phytochemicals. Phytonutrients are also called as phytopigments as they provide color to the fruits and vegetables. The darker the fruit or vegetable,higher would be the Phytonutrients content. They can be classified in to five different color groups Red, Green, White, Orange/Yellow and Purple/ Blue. Unlike vitamins and minerals phytonutrients are not essential to life for development, but they have antioxidant property which protects against cell damage, improves immunity against bacterial and viral infections and decreases the development of chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases. They also have anticancer property which protects against cancers. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of certain medical illness. They do not have adverse effects when compared to allopathic drugs. They are also cost effective and hence reduce the health care cost. It is important to encourage people to consume adequate amount of phytonutrients in their daily diet. Pharmaceutical industries should also try to extract phytonutrients and make it available to people for consumption at reasonable cost .The present article is framed to give information regarding important phytonutrients, their sources and uses.

    Traditional Systems of Medicine in India

    By Yadav Rajesh*, Yadav Nita, Kharya Murli Dhar-
    (566) (24)

    The Indian System of Medicine is of great antiquity. It is the culmination of Indian thought of medicine which represents a way of healthy living valued with a long and unique cultural history, as also amalgamating the best of influences that came in from contact with other civilizations be it Greece (resulting in Unani Medicine) or Germany (Homeopathy) or our scriptures/sages which gave us the science of Ayurveda, Siddha. Medicinal plants based traditional systems of medicines are playing important role in providing health care to large section of population, especially in developing countries. Interest in them and utilization of herbal products produced based on them is increasing in developed countries also. To obtain optimum benefit and to understand the way these systems function, it is necessary to have minimum basic level information on their different aspects. For Standardization and testing of drugs, various agencies have been put in plan by the Government of India. Four different Pharmacopoeia Committees are working for preparing official formularies / pharmacopoeias to evolve uniform standards in preparation of drugs of Unani, Ayurveda, Homeopathy and Siddha and to prescribe working standards for single drugs as well as compound formulations. In this review, an attempt has been made to provide general information pertaining to different aspects of these systems. This is being done to enable the readers to appreciate the importance of the conceptual basis of these systems in evolving the material medica. The aspects covered include information about historical background, conceptual basis, different disciplines studied in the systems, Research and Development aspects, Drug manufacturing aspects and impact of globalization on these systems.

    Phytosomes: Magnifying Power of Herbal Extract- An Systematic Overview

    By Ashwini S.Dhase, Somishwar S.Khadbadi, Shweta S.Saboo,-
    (566) (24)

    In the recent days, most of the prevailing diseases and nutritional disorders are treated with natural medicines. Several plant extracts and phyto constituents, despite having excellent bioactivity in vitro demonstrate less or no in vivo actions due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size or both, resulting in poor absorption and bioavailability. So, much work has been directed towards the development of new concept in herbal delivery system i.e., phytosomes which are better absorbed, utilized and as a result produce better results than conventional herbal extracts. Phytosomes often known as herbosomes. The term phyto means plant while some means cell-like. Phytosomes are little cell like structure. Phytosome is composed of phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine, producing a lipid compatible molecular complex with other constituents. Phytosomal complexes were first investigated for cosmetic applications. But phytosome process was developed and patented by Indena, a leading supplier of nutraceutical ingredients like milk thistle, ginkgo biloba, grape seed, green tea, hawthorn, ginseng etc. Phytosomes are superior to liposomes due to complex formation ratio of component and phospholipids is 2:1 and 1:1 respectively, much better absorption and stability profile. Development of phytosomes is at the budding stages in India and abroad. It has a lot of potential in the field of medicine, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.

    An Overvıew on Fıxed Dose Combinations

    By Timucin Ugurlu*, Tugce Ozaydin-
    (566) (24)

    Fixed dose combinations have become an important alternative to monotherapies in the treatment of diseases as hypertension, diabetes, Helicobacter pylori, AIDS- HIV infections and tuberculosis, asthma and COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) by offering several advantages including patients compliance, simple dosage schedule, superior efficacy and tolerability, reduced risk of adverse events, cheaper shipment & packaging activities. This article covers the advantages and disadvantages of FDC’sas well ascritical issues during evaluation of FDC’s such as Efficacy, Safety, Bioavailability and Stability.

    Chemoprevention of Oral Cancer by Saudi Arabian Propolis: An Overview

    By Kamal Ahmad Qureshi1, Riyaz Ahmed Khan, Dr. Gamal Al Hasan Osman, Dr. Faisal Al-nashmy Al shalawy-
    (566) (24)

    Propolis is a resinous substance collected by worker honeybees from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources. The bees pack propolis on their hind legs, carry it to their colony, and use it as a sterilant & sealant for unwanted open spaces in the hive. It is one of the oldest known therapeutic agents that are used even today in traditional medicines. Saudi Propolis has numerous therapeutic properties like antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, anti-inflammatory etc. Although numerous researchers have been reported the antimicrobial activity of propolis from different countries and geographical regions but information about Saudi Arabian Propolis are still limited. The composition of propolis can vary according to the geographic locations from where the bees obtained the ingredients. Main chemicals constituents of Saudi propolis have been identified as caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and artepillin C, galangin, xanthomicrol, chrysin. CAPE or chrysin are the active ingredients having anti proliferative property. The anti proliferative (anti cancer) effects of CAPE or chrysin in cancer cells are the result of the suppression of complexes of cyclins, as well as cell cycle arrest. The results of in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that CAPE and chrysin may inhibit tumor cell progression and may be useful as potential chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive anti cancer drugs. Oral cancer represents 3rd most common malignancy after lymphoma and leukemia of all cancers in the Saudi Arabia. In addition to high rates of recurrence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma because of frequent formation of second primary tumor in 3% to 7% per year, among the highest for any malignancy. Chemopreventive agents can serve as an appropriate therapy for patients with a premalignant lesion or patients who have had head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Also, excellent candidate of cancer for assessment of chemoprevention is Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral mucosa because lesions are amenable to oral delivery of chemopreventive agents. We assume that either dietary administration or intralesional injection of ’propolis’ would inhibit the occurrence and progression of malignant oral lesions. The effects can be visually monitored during treatment, and modulation or inhibition of genes or gene products involved in oral SCC constitute molecular targets against which chemopreventive approaches can be tested and validated.

    A Short Review on the Medicinal Properties of Chlorophyll Juice

    By Sreeraj Gopi*, Karthik Varma ,Robin George-
    (566) (24)

    Plant products are of increasing interest in the search for new nutraceutical ingredients and natural medicines in the treatment of disease; and the discovery of new alternatives to existing antibiotics is an important area of this research due to pathogen resistance. One example of a plant product currently under pharmacological and medicinal investigation is chlorophyll juice. The purpose of this study is to review the nutritional and medicinal values of chlorophyll juice.

    Implication of Placebo Upshot in Biomedical Investigations: False Hope and Best Clinical Data

    By Pramod Singh Khatri*, Brajpal Singh-
    (566) (24)

    Placebo is used as a substance, medicine and procedure that the physician believes has not known certain pharmacological action against the condition that being treated. If this produces an effect in patients resulting from its unquestioning or manifesting purpose and not from its specific physical and chemical properties. Placebos often take in the form of sugar pills, saline injections, miniscule doses of drug or sham procedures designed to be void any therapeutic value. In medical research placebo given as control treatment depend on the use of measured suggestion the based on false information. Some of physician believes that placebo can be produces an effect negative or positive based on patients psychological thinking. The ethical aspect of the use, act of placing patient in placebo group has been equated with the negligent withholding of treatment. This could be interpreting as a violation of beneficence. The use of placebo controls touch main of four ethical principles that are principle of autonomy, beneficence, paternalism is the special type of beneficence and nonmaleficence. Both the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki and Council of International Organization for Medical Sciences' International Ethical Guideline for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects have recently been revised in a way that seems to support wider use of placebo controls. Ultimately, deceptive use of placebos is not ethically acceptable because it may potential harm to patients to greater degree than it helps them. Biomedical Research and development of new drugs and implies an important investment of human and economic resources for conducting clinical trials designed to evaluate efficacy and safety of new medications. Knowledge of mechanisms of placebo effect and how the latter can influence the different efficacy variables in these research studies appears essential in order to optimize the available resource in application to development of new drugs.

    Liquisolid: A Novel Technique for Dissolution Enhancement of Poorly Water Soluble Drugs

    By Wankhede Navneet B*, Walekar S.S, Sadgir P.S, Pawar S.A Ahirrao S.P-
    (566) (24)

    Liquisolid compact technology is a novel concept for oral drug delivery. Liquisolid compact technology was first described by spireas et.al. (1998).This technique was used for water insoluble drugs. Solubility is a major problem for nearly one third drugs in their development phase. Liquisolid technique is a most promising technique for promoting dissolution by increase in solubility. It was found that the increase in oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug. The liquisolid system formed by conversion of liquid drug, drug suspension, drug solution using non- volatile solvent in to dry, non-adherent free flowing and compressible powder mixture by blending the drug suspension or solution with selected carrier and coating material it produce solid powder . This powder is evaluated for angle of repose, liquid load factor, compressibility test. Then such powder is subjected for tableting. The prepared tablet evaluate for hardness, friability, disintegration time, content uniformity, dissolution study, weight variation. On the basis of current literature survey it can be concluded that the liquisolid compact technique is promising alternative to enhance dissolution rate by increasing its solubility there by it may increase bioavailability of poorly water soluble, water insoluble, liquid drugs. Therefore this technique is potentially safe and efficacious method. Hence it can be applied for large scale manufacturing.

    A New Era in Thalassemia Disorder An Overview

    By G. Madhu Latha*, Sk.Suhana, Sk.Sahera Raksha, B.Sai Spandana, S.Radhika, N.Rama Rao-
    (566) (24)

    Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production of hemoglobin. Haemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to cells throughout the body. A hemoglobin molecule has sub-units commonly referred to as alpha and beta. Both sub-units are necessary to bind oxygen in the lungs properly and deliver it to tissues in other parts of the body. The alpha chain is an important component of fetal hemoglobin (which is usually made before birth) and hemoglobin A and hemoglobin A2 (which are present after birth). Beta thalassemia is a fairly common blood disorder worldwide. Thousands of infants with beta thalassemia are born each year. Beta thalassemia occurs most frequently in people from Mediterranean countries, North Africa, the Middle East, India, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia. Thalassemia occurs when there is an abnormality or mutation in one of the genes involved in hemoglobin production. A physical exam may reveal a swollen (enlarged) spleen. Treatment for thalassemia major often involves regular blood transfusions and folate supplements. Untreated, thalassemia major leads to heart failure and liver problems, and makes a person more likely to develop infections.Avoid excess iron. Unless doctor recommends it, don't take vitamins or other supplements that contain iron. Eating a balanced diet that contains plenty of nutritious foods can help you feel better and boost your energy. Signs and symptoms are usually mild with thalassemia minor and little, if any, treatment is needed. Occasionally, you may need a blood transfusion, particularly after surgery, after having a baby or to help manage thalassemia complications.

    Novel Approach of Treatment for Beta Blocker and Calcium Channel Blocker Toxicity, a High Dose Insulin Therapy

    By Sandeep Rajan Kolli, B.Lakshmi Durga, K.Vineela, K.Mohini Kalyani-
    (566) (24)

    Poison-induced cardiogenic shock (PICS) as a result of beta-blocker (β-blocker) or calcium channel blocker (CCB) overdose is a common and highly life-threatening condition. Conventional therapies, including fluid resuscitation, atropine, cardiac pacing, calcium, glucagon, and vasopressors often fail to improve hemodynamic status. High-dose insulin (HDI) is an emerging theraphy for PICS. In this article, we discuss the existing literature and highlight the therapeutic success and potential of HDI. Based on the current literature, which is limited primarily to case series and animal models, the authors conclude that HDI can be effective in restoring hemodynamic stability, and recommend considering its use in patients with PICS that is not responsive to traditional therapies. Future studies should be undertaken to determine the optimal dose and duration of therapy for HDI in PIC.

    Beta Cell Regeneration and Recent Targets for Beta Cell Regeneration

    By Sampatkumar Donthula, Rajkumari Sahane, Rucha Jogalekar-
    (566) (24)

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. High amount of glucose in blood e.g: after a meal(carbohydrates, proteins,and fats), triggers the release of the insulin hormone from beta cells of the pancreas. Human pancreas is composed of an exocrine and an endocrine part, containing the islets of Langerhans(group of cells), which play a role in maintaining the appropriate level of sugars, proteins, and lipids.The agents that may induce formation of new b cells in humans includes the following:Gastrin and epidermal growth factor,Incretins, especially glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP IV) antagonists,Islet neogenesis associated protein (INGAP) and its human equivalent, human proislet peptide (HIP).

    Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacogenetics (PGx) A Connexion to Personalized Cancer Therapy

    By Pramod Singh Khatri, Ankita Kaushal-
    (566) (24)

    In the recent years, headways in Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx) have gradually revealed the genetic premise of inter individual contrasts in drug reactions. A tangible parcel of these developments has been made in the field of anticancer treatment. PGx mostly center to illuminate the genomic elements of medication mien and its impact. As tumor chemotherapy is generally non-particular and has limited remedial index, there is an incredible probability for pharmacogenomics to enhance treatment by either diminishing the various types of toxicity or escalating the efficacy. As of late, the US FDA has redesigned approx. 30 anticancer biomarkers to incorporate PGx data which incorporates the unpredictability of hereditary information (e.g. Cancer mutation, chromosomal translocation and germ line mutations).

    A molecular outlook of Ebola Virus Infection Contemporary evidence and Future Implications

    By Pramod Singh Khatri, Kashish Agarwal-
    (566) (24)

    A flare-up of EVD, which began in December 2013, is constantly advancing in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The first instance was accounted for from Guéckédou prefecture, which is a forested locale of south-eastern Guinean earth outskirt with Liberia and Sierra Leone. After an ease off in April, the flare-up has quickened amid the last two months. This is the biggest EVD episode ever documented, both regarding number of cases and geographical area. It is additionally the first run through EVD has spread to larger urban societies. Despite the fact that its clinical progression is well known, the particular mechanism underlying the pathogenicity of Ebola virus infection has not been obviously portrayed. This is expected to some degree, to the trouble in acquiring specimens and investigating the infection in the moderately remote regions in which the outbreaks happen. Also, a high level of biohazard regulation is needed for lab studies and clinical dissection. Segregation of the viral cDNAs and the development of expression framework shear permitted the investigation of Ebola virus infection under less restrictive conditions and encouraged an understanding of the mechanism underlying virally affected cell damage.

    The Dawning Era of Nano Medicine for Anti-Cancer Therapy

    By Pramod Singh Khatri, Ritu Khatri-
    (566) (24)

    Nanotechnology gives a mixed bag of Nano scale instruments for medicine. Cancer Nano therapeutics is quickly advancing and is continuously being actualized to tackle a few confinements of drug delivery systems for example nonspecific biodistribution and focusing on, absence of water dissolvability, poor oral bioavailability, and low therapeutic indices. To enhance the bio distribution of cancer medications, nanoparticles have been intended for ideal size and surface characteristics to build their circulation time in the circulatory system. They are likewise fit to convey their stacked active drugs to cancer cells by specifically utilizing the extraordinary pathophysiology of tumors, for example, their upgraded permeability and retention impact and the tumor microenvironment. Notwithstanding this aloof focusing on mechanism, active focusing on methods utilizing ligands or antibodies administered against chose tumor targets enhance the specificity of these therapeutics nanoparticles. Medicine resistance, an alternate obstruction that blocks the viability of both molecularly focused on and routine chemotherapeutic executors, may additionally be succeed, or in any event diminished, utilizing nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have the capacity to accumulate in cells without being perceived by P-glycoprotein, one of the principle arbiters of multidrug resistance, bringing about the expanded intracellular concentration of medications. Multifunctional & multiplex nanoparticles are presently being energetically explored and are coming soon as the next era of nanoparticles, encouraging customized and custom-made tumor treatment.

    Antiurolithiatic activity of InjiRasayanam: A Siddha Formulation

    By Ashok Kumar B.S*., Vamshi Krishna N., Raghavendra B.S., GopiSetty Saran-
    (566) (24)

    Aqueous extract of Inji Rasayanam, was carried out to investigate antiurolithiatic activity by calcium oxalate crystallization was induced by the addition of 0.01M sodium oxalate solutions in synthetic urine and nucleation method.. The effect of Inji Rasayanam on calcium oxalate crystallization (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 μg/ml) was studied by time course measurement of turbidity in presence or absence of inhibitor (extract) at 620 nm for ten minutes by means of a spectrophotometer. Aqueous extract of Inji Rasayanam exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation.

    The Panorama of Genetic Inheritance Intricacy in Gene Expression Analysis

    By Pramod Singh Khatri-
    (566) (24)

    The view that alter the control of gene expression rather than changes to protein sequences are focal to the development of organism has ended up something of a truism in molecular biology. Truly, the direct confirmation for this is constrained, and just lastly we have the capability to look more comprehensively at how genetic variation impacts gene expression, centering upon individual variation in gene expression and utilizing microarrays to test for difference in mRNA levels. Understanding the impact of genetics on the molecular mechanism underpinning human phenotypic diversity is major to having the capacity to anticipate health outcome and treat illness. To question the role of genetics on cell state and function, gene expression has been widely utilized. Previous and recent studies have highlighted imperative patterns of heritability, populace separation and tissue-specificity in gene expression. such studies are exploiting system biology based methodologies and advances in sequencing technology: new philosophy means to make an expressions of regulatory networks to enhance pathways responsible of ailment etiology and second era sequencing now offers single molecular resolution of the transcriptome giving remarkable data on the structural and genetic attributes of gene expression. Such advances are prompting a future where rich cell phenotypes will encourage understanding of the transmission of genetic impact from the gene to organism.

    Microbial Effects and Approaches on Biodegradation of Polyethylene: A Review

    By Shaon Pritam Baral* -
    (566) (24)

    With its increasing demand in human life, the enormous production of polyethylene leads to their huge accumulation in the environment. They are durable and very stable in nature and remain inert to degradation and deterioration. This review focuses on various microbial effects and approaches on biodegradation of polyethylene. On basis of available literatures on biodegradation of polyethylene, this review attempts to cover the sources of polyethylene degrading microbes, mechanisms of degradation, cost effective methods and experiments as well as various analytical techniques to determine the biodegradation. It also concludes with some future aspects and idea on potentially viable methods to reduce the impacts of polyethylene waste on the environment.

    Peripheral Neuropathy & Animal Models of Peripheral Neuropathy: A Review

    By Arunkumar Choulam-
    (566) (24)

    Peripheral neuropathy is defined as damage to the peripheral nervous system resulting in a syndrome of sensory loss, muscle weakness and atrophy along with vasomotor symptoms, alone or in any combination. There are more than 100 known types of peripheral neuropathy, each with its own characteristic symptoms, pattern of development, and prognosis. One study estimated that the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in the family medicine setting is 8 percent in persons 55 years and older. The prevalence in the general population may be as high as 2.4 percent. A community-based study estimated the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to be 26.4 percent. Peripheral neuropathy may be either inherited or acquired. Causes of acquired peripheral neuropathy include physical injury (trauma) to a nerve, tumors, toxins (Lolin Y, 1989), autoimmune responses, nutritional deficiencies, alcoholism (Ammendola A et al, 2001), and vascular and metabolic disorders. Symptoms are related to the type of affected nerve and may be seen over a period of days, weeks, or years. Muscle weakness is the most common symptom of motor nerve damage. Diagnosing peripheral neuropathy is often difficult because the symptoms are highly variable. A thorough neurological examination is usually required and involves taking an extensive patient, performing tests that may identify the cause of the neuropathic disorder, and conducting tests to determine the extent and type of nerve damage. The review focused on the drugs used to treat peripheral neuropathy. It included the Nutritive supplements, Topical Capsaicin Cream, Acupuncture, Magnets, Minerals & Drugs. The different animal models of the peripheral neuropathy also reviewed .

    Angiogenesis: An imprint for Melanoma Progression

    By Pramod Singh Khatri, Major General Mahavir Singh-
    (566) (24)

    Angiogenesis happens in neurotic conditions, like in Malignant tumors, where a particular discriminating point in Malignant tumor development is the conversion from the avascular to the vascular stage. Malignant tumor angiogenesis depends fundamentally on the discharge by neoplastic cells of development variables particular for endothelial cells, which can empower the development of the host's veins. This article outlines the writing concerning the strong relationship between angiogenesis and human melanoma movement. The latest requisitions of antiangiogenic executors which meddle with melanoma movement are likewise depicted.

    Concept of Substantial Similarity In Pharmaceutical Patent Infringement Cases and the Implications of Section 3d of Indian Patent Act

    By Dr. Shuchi Midha, Aditi Midha-
    (566) (24)

    The research paper discusses the main aspects of Section 3(d) of the Indian Patent Act 1970 with respect to the Indian pharmaceutical industry. Three cases viz. the Novartis Glivec, Pfizer’s Sutent and GSK’s Tykerb have been discussed that explicitly demonstrate, pharmaceutical inventions rarely relate to new chemical entities or novel active ingredients that have never before been available for therapeutic use, thus encouraging pharmaceutical companies to prolong patent protection by obtaining separate patents on multiple attributes of a single product. Section 3(d), whereby, regulates the granting of pharmaceutical product patents by limiting the scope of protection available for derivatives and new uses of a known substance, thereby preventing patents on trivial modifications of known substances. Thus, India’s Section 3(d) should be viewed as a “public health safeguard” that aims to prevent “evergreening,” and not a radical departure from international practices.

    Stem Cells Therapy: An Innovative Slant in Drug Discovery Research

    By Pramod Singh Khatri, Major General Mahavir Singh-
    (566) (24)

    The recognizable proof of ordinary and carcinogenic stem cell and the latest developments made in seclusion and principles of stem cells have quickly picked up consideration in the field of medicine discovery and regenerative prescriptions. The possibility of performing screens pointed at burgeoning, controlled separation, and toxicity and adequacy studies utilizing stem cells offers a solid stage for the medication finding process. Progresses made in the era of incited pluripotent stem cells from typical or unhealthy tissue serves as a stage to perform medicine screens pointed at creating cell-based treatments against disorders like Parkinson's ailment and diabetes. This review talks about the provision of stem cells and cancer stem cell in medicine screening and their part in supplementing, decreasing, and reinstating animal testing. Notwithstanding this, target distinguishing proof and real developments in the field of customized Medicine utilizing affected pluripotent cells are additionally examined.

    Field Flow Fractionation

    By Iffath Rizwana, Sana Ahmed*, M.Anitha Vani, Syed Abdul Azeez Basha-
    (566) (24)

    Field flow fractionation (FFF) is a separation technique conceived by J. Calvin Giddings. FFF is a separation technique where a field is applied to a solution which is pumped through a long narrow channel which is perpendicular to the direction of flow in order to cause separation of particles present in the fluid, dependent on their differing mobility’s under the force exerted by field. Analytes can be separated by different mechanisms. The mode of operation determines the elution order of analytes, along with other separation characteristics such as selectivity and resolution. Three widely used modes that can be implemented in any FFF technique are normal, steric and hyperlayer modes It uses most of the ancillary equipment employed in chromatography such as injector valves, pumps for the carrier liquid delivery, detectors, and some data acquisition devices such as chart recorders or more conveniently computers. It is particularly suitable for macro-molecules, colloidal and particulate materials extending from a few hundred to 10 Da.

    An Overview of Iranian Patent System

    By Prabodh Meragu*, Chaitanya Prasad K, Ashish S, Abhijit K, Suthakaran R-
    (566) (24)

    Intellectual property protection is a one type of the protection to the innovator, rebelling from the creative efforts of the human Mind style exhibited by a virtuoso. The patenting system status in Iran is discussed using some recent statistics on the number of field and granted Iranian patents to resident and non-resident applicants. The Iranian patent laws differ from other countries. Patent system in Iran is briefly introduced and discussed in this paper to give the reader an overview of the status of the changes in the Iranian IP law. The Iranian patent legislation had a provision for registration of patent separately for resident and nonresident applicants.

    Liposphere Lipid Based Drug Delivery System :A Review

    By Wattamwar Mayur Madhukarrao*,Ratnaparkhi Mukesh P, Chaudhari Shilpa P-
    (566) (24)

    New chemical entities (NCEs) in modern discovery libraries and development programs have an ever-increasing number of unconventional physical and chemical properties. In particular, up to 70% of discovery compounds and 40% of pipeline candidates are insoluble in water. These promising molecules present unique formulation and development challenges and often suffer from poor bioavailability. Therefore, conventional formulation systems cannot be employed. Techniques available for scientists to increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs are either increasing their solubility in biological media of choice, or increasing their dissolution kinetics. The use of advanced lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) is a strategy to design pharmaceutical dosage forms with improved therapeutic benefits.

    Prostate cancer in Amazon native Indian: a case report

    By Mário Maciel de Lima Junior*, Mário Maciel de Lima, Fabiana Granja-
    (566) (24)

    Background: Prostate cancer is highly prevalent worldwide and its incidence shows marked disparities between different countries and races. Age, race/ethnicity, and family history are the strongest known risk factors for this neoplasm. The aim of the present report is to describe the clinical and prostatic characteristics in Amazon Indian men, belonging to the Yanomami ethnic group, which is one of the few indigenous groups in which incidence and prevalence rates of prostate cancer are the lowest in the world. Case presentation: A 47-year-old native Indian male of the Yanomami ethnic presented with obstructive voiding symptoms including intermittency, hesitancy and sensation of incomplete bladder emptying. He was not on medication and was otherwise in good health. Physical examination revealed normal genitalia; no hernias. Digital rectal exam showed 25 g prostate without nodularity. Urinalysis revealed parameters within clinically normal ranges. Conclusion: Though the incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer is the lowest among native American Indians, the novelty of the presented case lies less in the case being an incidence of prostate cancer, than in the case being diagnosed with the disease. It might be difficult for these indigenous people, leaving in a knit community with strong cultural beliefs, to travel to a diagnostic centre far away from the village, in a strange and perceivably intimidating environment. Nonetheless, the case definitely emphasizes that the cases of prostate cancer might be under-reported in these areas, due to socio-economic and geographical difficulties, and difficulty in accessing healthcare facilities, making diagnosis – and not incidence – rare.

    Serotonin In Brain: A Cue for Alzheimer’s Disease

    By Vivek Sharma*, Anita, Rajni Sharma,Rajender Guleria-
    (566) (24)

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a common fatal neurodegenerative disorder is manifested by core features of progressive memory impairment, visuospatial decline, aphasia, agnosia, loss of executive function and severe neuropsychiatric changes like hallucinations and depression. AD is characterized by cholinergic dysfunction, but treatments targeting the cholinergic system alone have yielded disappointing results. Present review focuses on the investigation of possible involvement of serotonin (5-HT) in pathogenesis of AD beside its versatile role in brain physiology. Serotonin has been implicated in almost every conceivable physiologic or behavioural function like affect, aggression, appetite, cognition, memory, sleep, emesis, endocrine functions, gastrointestinal functions, motor functions, neurotrophism, perception, sensory functions, sex, and vascular function etc. In addition to its physiological role, growing evidence suggests the neuromodulator serotonin also regulates the connectivity of the brain by modulating developmental cellular migration and cyto-architecture. Pathologically, it is involved in depression, aggression, anxiety and disturbances in food intake. This plethora of roles has consequently led to the development of many compounds of therapeutic value, including various antidepressant, antipsychotic and antiemetic drugs. Investigation of serotonin is encouraged by the act that there is serotonin loss in normal aging and neuropsychiatric diseases of late life which may contribute to behavioural changes. Continuous researches over the years have found that instead of malfunction of single neurotransmitter, AD is a multineurotransmitter deficit thus role of other neurotransmitter particularly 5HT, beside Ach needs thorough investigation.

    Remembering Cyclooxygenases: A Brief Review

    By Ashok Kumar, Ajay Gaur-
    (566) (24)

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the competitive inhibitors of cyclooxygenase, the enzyme which bioconvert the arachidonic acid to inflammatory prostaglandins. Although their use is associated with the side effects such as gastrointestinal and renal toxicity they are one of the widely prescribed drugs. The therapeutic anti-inflammatory action of NSAIDs is produced by the inhibition of COX-2, while the undesired side effects arise from inhibition of COX-1 activity. Based upon that, a number of selective COX-2 inhibitors (Rofecoxib, Celecoxib, Valdecoxib etc.) were developed as safer NSAIDs. However, the recent market removal of some COXIBs such as Rofecoxib due to its adverse cardiovascular side effects clearly encourages the researchers to explore and evaluate alternative templates with COX-2 inhibitory activity. Recognition of new avenues for selective COX-2 inhibitors in cancer chemotherapy and neurological diseases such as Parkinson and Alzheimer’s diseases still continues to attract investigations on the development of COX-2 inhibitors. This review highlights the therapeutic profile as well as the future therapeutic potential of COX inhibitors with highlighting their disadvantages as well.

    Review on Diabetics and Anti-Diabetic Drugs

    By Hasna Akter-
    (566) (24)

    A very complex illness mainly caused by insulin deficit affecting world’s most of the population is Diabetes. The main types of the Diabetes are Insulin depended diabetes mellitus (IDDM)-Type 1 or Non-insulin depended diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)-Type 2. Also Gestational diabetes (GDM) is other type observed mainly in the women. Type 1 diabetes mostly affects young people (known as juvenile-diabetes mellitus) and develops ketoacidosis where insulin therapy is needed but is not taken. Insensibility to insulin is Type 2 which could be the result of these factors: secretion of abnormal insulin, manifestation and activity of insulin antagonists or damage of aimed tissues. Gestational diabetes (GDM) is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. There are wide groups of drugs are available for the treatment of diabetes. The present review found 78.3% patient adherence to antidiabetic drug therapy. Although different prevalence of adherence were seen for each factor studied, the association was not statistically significant. For the specific treatment health providers assess adherence of patients to drug therapy in the event of poor glucose control and presumed failure of the prescribed therapeutic regimen. The review snapshots the type of diabetes and the treatment of therein.

    A Review on Advance Technologies for Developing Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems

    By Shinde P-
    (566) (24)

    Over the past decades, developing controlled drug delivery has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry.Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged.Transdermal drug delivery represents one of the most rapidly advancing areas of novel drug delivery. Transdermal drug delivery system was introduced to overcome the difficulties of drug delivery through oral route. A transdermal patch is medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. With the advent of new era of pharmaceutical dosage forms, transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) established itself as an integral part of novel drug delivery systems. The present article reviews the polymers suitable to be formulated as transdermal system, advantages, and disadvantages of formulation design.

    Narrative Review: A Rational Approach to Needle Free Insulin Technology

    By Sachin S. Mali* Sonali S. Gorde, Jyoti D.Thorat, Sachin S. Salunkhe, Rohan A. Khutale, Ashok A. Hajare, Neela M.Bhatia-
    (566) (24)

    Needle free injection techniques can be used to administer vaccines and medications in the pork industry. In this review we have discussed history of diabetes mellitus with its whole introduction, types of insulin, need for needle free insulin technology, insulin pumps, intraject drug delivery, current needle free devices in the market. Needle free injection offers a fast, effective route of administration. Needle free injection technology has been used widely in clinical practice for many decades and has been shown to be safe and effective for the administration of many different medications for a variety of applications, including immunization and mass inoculation of large populations. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that has a major impact on the lives of people with diabetes and their families and may complicate family functioning. An insulin injection is always became a painful experience to a diabetic patient. It definitely affect the patient compliance of the diabetic patient. The needle free insulin technology is the best alternative to the pains and needles. With oral drug delivery there is one another drug delivery that is insulin drug delivery with osmotic pump and handheld controllable injections. The future work that would most benefit the controllable NFTI project would be to create a tissue model that would allow the correlation of jet power with depth of injection. This also has implications for a human market for this device. Future work in this area could drastically improve healthcare for animals and humans alike.

    Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: Overview on Excipients

    By Jatin B. Pandya, Ramesh D. Parmar, Dr. M. M. Soniwala, Dr. J. R. Chavda -
    (566) (24)

    Nanotechnology is now a day’s emerging fields in drug delivery approach. Solid lipid nanoparticles are colloidal particles of 1-1000 nm size and made up of lipids solid at room temperature, biodegradable, biocompatible. It gives controlled or sustained release and if surface modified then target release also. Compatible with Various route for administration and no toxicity problem make it versatile. Lots of methods available for preparation and scale up are also easy. For any of the dosage form it’s important to select excipients on various criteria. This review gives brief idea about excipients and its suitability for solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Review on Polymers Used for Film Coating

    By Dr. P.H. Sharma*, S.N. Kalasare, R.A. Kamble-
    (566) (24)

    Film coating is the process that involves the depositions of a thin, but uniform, film on to the surface of the substrate. Film coating systems are dry blend concentrates of polymers plasticizers, opacifiers, glidantsbinders, anti tacking agents, antifoaming agents, surfactants, fillers and extenders. Film coating systems are ready to use and are available in aqueous or organic systems. They can be reconstituted with organic solvent system, aqueous systems or hydro-alcoholic systems to prepare pharmaceutical solid oral dosage forms. A polymer used for film coating of tablets has great importance. These polymers are described in detail with their characteristics which are responsible for effective, enteric or sustained release action. Polymers are one of the important parts of this type of coating. There are various polymers from different chemical natures are used for film coating; e.g. vinyl polymers, cellulose ethers, polyesters, silicones, polysaccharides and so on. Each one of these polymers has different characteristics and that are useful for thin polymer coating, enteric coating, sustained release action. Among all these properties like solubility or insolubility in aqueous solvent, resistance to gastric fluid, mechanical properties, thermo mechanical properties are useful in preparing a effective form such as thin polymer coating, enteric coating, and so on.

    Biological Overview on Azrines

    By Mohammad Asif-
    (566) (24)

    The azrines moiety is an important and showed some important biological activities. Recently, much attention has been focused on azrines derivatives for their scarcity of their pharmacological activities. Various substituted azrines derivatives were also reported to show antibacterial and cytotoxic properties. The combination of two or more heterocyclic and non-heterocyclic systems enhances or other substitution affect their biological profile than parent nuclei. We considered some compounds bearing azrines in their molecular framework.

    Marketing Authorization of Homeopathic Medicinal Product in Europe: An Overview

    By Manish Mudaliar-
    (566) (24)

    The Council of the European Communities stated in the preamble to a directive that homeopathy was officially recognized in certain member states. In any case it was prescribed and used in all member states. In order to harmonize the market of homeopathic products, the council, in Directive 92/73/EEC directed the member states to implement certain changes in their national legislation. Directive 92/73/EEC was replaced by Directive 2001/83/EC on the Community code relating to medicinal products for human use. Member states are required to ensure that homeopathic products (for oral or external use) can be registered by skipping the proof of therapeutic efficacy, provided that there is a sufficient degree of dilution to guarantee the safety of the product; in particular, the product may not contain either more than 1/10,000th of the mother tincture or more than 1/100th of the smallest dose used in medicine, with regard to active principles whose presence in a medicinal product results in the obligation to submit a doctor's prescription.

    Fast Dissolving Tablet Technology-A Review

    By Shinde PV-
    (566) (24)

    The convenience of administration and improved patient compliance are important in the design of oral drug delivery system which remains the preferred route of drug delivery in spite of various disadvantages. One such problem can be solved in the novel drug delivery system by formulating “mouth dissolving tablets” (MDTs) which disintegrates or dissolves rapidly without water within few seconds in the mouth due to the action of superdisintegrant or maximizing pore structure in the formulation. Such formulations provide an opportunity for product line extension in the many elderly persons will have difficulties in taking conventional oral dosage forms (viz., solutions, suspensions, tablets, and capsules) because of hand tremors and dysphagia. Swallowing problems also are common in young individuals because of their underdeveloped muscular and nervous systems. In the present review the formulation techniques and different technologies are discussed.

    Nanotechnology and Overview on Nanoparticle Drug Delivery An Evolutionary Step toward Curing Cancer

    By Suhas H. Lahane-
    (566) (24)

    The scenario present in this article is to focus on areas of research in caner and its therapy. An outline is explained here related to cancer and its therapeutics. It is possible to design and construct targeted with least side effects system by application of nanotechnology. At Nano scale, novel properties are present with nanoparticle making them magic bullets to kill various diseases. Here it is explored that nanoparticles have so much potential to be used as carriers, selective, targeted system. In the recent years, due to lots of changes and advancement in technique, facility etc. scope for dosage form design has been widened.

    Evaluation of Anti Leishmanial Activities of Withania Somnifera and Solanum Nigrum: A Preliminary Study

    By Shagufta Taqvi, Samra Jamal-
    (566) (24)

    This work deals with the study of anti leishmanial activities of plant abstracts that have been evaluated for possible anti leishmanial activities using MTT Assay. In vitro inhibition was observed with chloroform growth and a similar inhibition was obtained with aqueous extract of s.nigrum and all other extracts exhibiting significant toxicity. Promastigotes of L. donovani strain AG83 were routinely cultured at 24OC in M199 medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, 100 U penicillin/ml and 100 µg streptomycin/ml. The IC50 of Pentamidine was found to be 38g/ml while that for w.somnifera and s.nigrum found to be 50g/ml and 58g/ml respectively. This paper records one of the effective measures of cure of the deadly disease by medicinal plants solanum nigrum and withania somnifera against the recent drug pentamidine .

    Immune Response In Tuberculosis An Overview

    By Shagufta Taqvi, Samra Jamal-
    (566) (24)

    Tuberclosis is one of the most infectious and ancient disease. it is caused by bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis, but very few people have risk of its reoccurrence round 5-10%.one third of the population is infected with this deadly disease and comes next to HIV. When active tuberculosis develops, disease localization, severity and outcome are highly variable. It may develop anywhere in the body but usually presents as pulmonary infection ,ranging from mild infection to chronic, cavitary and severely destructive disease. According to world health organization (WHO),TB is a worldwide pandemic. The different manifestation of infection with M.tuberclosis reflect the balance between the bacillus and host defence system. However one should be were that dissecting innate and acquired host responses are complementary and synergistic.