• Stability Indicating UV Spectrophotometric Assay Method Development for Simultaneous Determination of Ranitidine and Dicyclomine in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

      A simple, accurate, economic and reproducible ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous estimation of ranitidine and dicyclomine has been developed and validated. The method was involved the measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths 325 nm and 218 nm for ranitidine and dicyclomine respectively by using methanol as solvent. The method was found to be linear in the range of 3-18 µg/ml for ranitidine and 1-6 µg/ml for dicyclomine respectively. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantitation as per ICH guidelines. The method has good reproducibility with % RSD less than two. Thus, proposed method can be successfully applied for ranitidine and dicyclomine in routine analysis work. Download
    • Studies on Ethnomedicinally important plants of Bariya Forest Division, Gujarat (India)

      Ethnobotanical and Ethnomedicinal surveys are important as they lead to possible drug discoveries. An ethnomedicinal survey was carried out in Bariya Forest Division to document medicinally important flora and related traditional knowledge. The data of local traditional uses were collected through personal and group interviews, and field visits with locals, and faith healers. The present study revealed 99 plant species belonging to 56 different families reported to be traditionally used by the ethnic groups receding in the peripheries of the forests of the Bariya Forest Division. The identification of the listed plants here is based on The Flora of Gujarat State. The collected and identified plants were deposited at the herbarium of the Department of Botany, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad. Download
    • Sustained Release Drug Delivery System: A Modern Formulation Approach

      Sustained release dosage forms are designed to release a drug at a predetermined rate by maintaining a constant drug level for a specific period of time with minimum side effects. In the recent years, focus on the development of controlled release drug delivery systems has increased. The basic rationale of controlled release drug delivery system optimizes the biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of a drug in such a way that its utility is maximized, side-effects are reduced and cure or control of the condition is achieved, in the shortest possible time by using smallest quantity of drug administered by the most suitable route. There are several advantages of sustained release drug delivery over conventional dosage forms like improved patient compliance due to less frequent drug administration, reduction of fluctuation in steady-state drug levels, maximum utilization of the drug, increased safety margin of potent drug, reduction in healthcare costs through improved therapy, shorter treatment period and less frequency of dosing can be achieved. This review briefly emphasizes about the sustained release drug delivery system characteristics, formulation design and drug release mechanisms. Download
    • Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Some 2- Substituted Amino Benzothiazole Derivatives

      A series of 2- amino substituted (3a-3g) were synthesized by treating with ammonium thiocynate in the presence of Conc. HCl with different substituted anilines.Structures of all the synthesized compounds were established on melting point, TLC, IR,1H NMR spectral data. In the present study 2-aminobenzothiazole derivatives were prepared from the substituted anilines, in the presence of ammonium thiocyanate and the titled compounds were evaluated for Antibacterial Activity . Download
    • Study of Liver Function Test in Tuberculosis Treatment

      Tuberculosis is major problem in India. In India about 1.96 millions of the new cases were reported annually. About 3.8 million of the new cases showed prevalence of the tuberculosis. Antituberculosis treatment is the common cause of drug induced liver injuries or hepatotoxicity in the patients. It has been proved in many studies that the effect occure due the elevated level of the liver enzymes like ALT, AST, ALP. The study was conducted on the patients of DOTs centres in the North India. About 50 patients were selected. The blood samples were collected from the patients and the liver markes were studied before and after drug therapy. The levels of the Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartame transaminase, Bilirubin & Plasma albumin were increased significantly after the drug administration. The study concludes that side effects in the patients with anti-tuberculosis drugs shall be monitored regularly. Download
    • Study of Neusiln UFL2 and β-Cyclodexrtin as Solid Carriers in Solid Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System of Atorvastatin Calcium Prepared by Spray Drying

      The main objectives of this work was, to study the effect of β-cyclodextrin and Neusilin UFL2 as a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic solid carrier respectively in solidification of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system prepared by spray drying technique. The liquid SMEDDS consisted of poorly water-soluble drug Atorvastatin calcium (10mg), and Capmul MCM (200mg) and Tween 20 (800mg) as oil and surfactant respectively. This formulation was spray dried by using the solid carrier in various formulations to carrier ratio. These spray dried formulation were characterized for flow properties, drug content, reconstitution and solid state properties. In-vitro dissolution test was carried out to observe the effect of solidification on release of drug and compare it with liquid SMEDDS and marketed formulation. The liquid SMEDDS to solid carrier ratio of 1:0.5 showed passable flow properties and high drug content. DSC, PXRD revealed that the drug in the solid SMEDDS was disperse in amorphous form while SEM results indicated that the particle formed were spherical with liquid formulation loading. In-vitro drug dissolution study indicated that after solidification the drug release was enhanced as compared to plain drug and marketed formulation. After three month stability study solid SMEDDS did not show any drug precipitation as well as phase separation. Thus it can be concluded that the solidification of liquid SMEDDS using these carrier retain the original performance with enhance stability. Download
    • Sachet Formulation of Taste Masked Antibiotic Drug For Pediatrics Use

      The major problem of bitter drug is to restrict greatly the further development of oral preparations and clinical application of these drugs. The current study was aimed to prepare taste masked granules by using fluidized bed processor (Miniquest F). In this study ciprofloxacin HCl along with HPMC (6cps), Aspartame (6%) and flavour (0.6%) was granulated and passed through sieve no.30# to get optimized size of granules. The key variables were identified as spray rate, inlet temp, atomization air pressure & air flow in fluidized bed processor to obtain required size of granules. Air flow range for the process was decided on the basis of fluidization of API (0.7-0.9 bar) used. Ciprofloxacin being a poorly fluidized drug air flow was kept at 0.7-0.9 bar. The obtained granules were coated with different taste masking polymers vizEudragit EPO (70%) &Eudragit L100 (40%&30%). Complete taste masking was observed with Eudragit L100 (40%). The coated granules were then evaluated for its micromeritic properties, taste masking &in-vitro dissolution. The coated ciprofloxacin granules were filled in a sachet manually along with other excipients to make a unit dose weight of 1 gm. Download
    • Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for the Determination of Potential Degradation Impurities of Efavirenz, Emtricitabine and Tenofovir in Combined Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

      A simple, very accurate and precise stability indicating RP-HPLC gradient was developed to determine related substances of Efavirenz, Emtricitabine and Tenofovir disoproxil from tablet dosage form. The experiment was carried out on Zorbax SB-Phenyl, (250 mm X 4.6 mm), 5 µm column using the gradient composition of buffer pH 3.7 as mobile phase A and mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and tetrahydrofuran (50: 50: 2 v/v/v), degas as mobile phase B at flow rate 1.2ml/min and detection wavelength 265 nm The new proposed method was simple, accurate, precise, linear and rugged. Method was validated as per ICH guidelines1, 2, 3, 4 for simultaneous determination related substances of Efavirenz, Emtricitabine and Tenofovir disoproxil in tablet dosage form hence can be used for routine analysis. Download
    • Study of Sociodemographic and Morbidity Pattern among Geriatric Population

      Background: This study was carried out to know the sociodemographic and morbidity pattern of geriatric population .As there is increase in the proportion of aged population, there would be increase in the burden of chronic diseases and disabilities in older age group. Thus it was decided to do a cross-sectional study of the geriatric morbidity in a rural population. Method: The detailed information of geriatric population regarding study variables like age, sex, occupation, education and morbidity pattern collected. Predesigned and pretested proforma was used to collect data. Data was analyzed by using suitable statistical method. Result: Among 100 elderly, 56% were men and 44% were women. 41% belonged to age group 61-65yrs. 85% are agricultural workers. Nearly half of them were illiterate. A majority of them had health problems. Most common health problem which were found were arthritis 58%, cataract 42%, URTI and other respiratory problems 36%. Conclusion: It is necessary to put attention over health of geriatric population by community participation. Download
    • Solid Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System: A Novel Approach

      The new chemical entities discovered by the pharmaceutical industry up to 40% to 50% are poorly soluble or lipophilic compounds, which leads to poor oral bioavailability. Currently a number of technologies are available to deal with the poor solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of insoluble drugs. Recently much attention has been paid to lipid based formulations with particular emphasis on self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS), to improve the oral bioavailability of lipophilic drugs. Self emulsifying formulations are mixtures of oils and surfactants, ideally isotropic, and sometimes containing co-solvents, which emulsify spontaneously to produce fine oil-in-water emulsion when introduced into aqueous phase under conditions of gentle agitation. The present review examines the recent advances in Solid SEDDS (S-SEDDS) with regard to the selection of lipid systems for current formulations, solidification techniques by adsorbing agents and the development of solid SE (self-emulsifying) dosage forms and their related problem. Download
    • SMN2 Gene Based Treatments In Spinal Muscular Atrophy- A Review Of Recent Advancements

      Spinal muscle atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease with autosomal recessive inheritance which is pathologically characterized by degeneration of α motor neurons from the anterior horn of the spinal cord resulting in muscle weakness, muscle atrophy involving mainly muscles of the trunk. SMA is commonly divided into types 1 through 4. In humans, SMN genes, (SMN1 and SMN2) are located on chromosome 5 in close proximity to each other. It has been assumed that the SMN2 locus is derived from a (evolutionarily) recent duplication event of a genomic region spanning 500 kb. The role of SMN2 gene as a phenotypic modifier of SMA has been studied in great details recently. Each patient affected with SMA retains at least oneSMN2 copy. From this perspective, it can be said that SMA arises due to the inability of SMN2 gene to fully compensate for the lack of functional SMN protein resulting from the mutation of SMN1. In this review article, we will focus on three of the treatment strategies using SMN2 gene which have been used as treatment strategies by various techniques. These strategies are: i) inducing the expression of SMN2, ii) modulating splicing of SMN2 derived transcript, and iii) stabilizing the full length SMN2 derived mRNA and/or protein. Download
    • Study of Acid Neutralizing Capacity of Various Antacid Formulations

      Background: Antacids are the substances most commonly used by the patients to obtain fast symptomatic relief from dyspepsia. They are the week base which neutralize the gastric acid and raise the pH of the gastric contents. The potency of the antacids depends upon their acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). The antacid neutralizing capacity varies from one another depending upon their formulations. Materials and methods: The present study was undertaken to study the acid neutralizing capacity of commonly available antacids formulations using titration and pH meter method. Six liquid formulations and six solid tablet formulations were studied for their acid neutralizing capacity Results: The acid neutralizing capacity among the liquid formulations was highest for Dioval 26.28±0.05 by pH meter method and 26.17±0.18 by titration method. Among solid antacid formulations ANC was highest with Riflux forte being 25.77±0.06 by pH meter method and 25.73±0.17 by titration method. Both the formulations had higher magnesium hydroxide concentration when compared to other antacids. Conclusion: The acid neutralizing capacity was highest with the antacids containing magnesium hydroxide. For acute fast symptomatic relief from dyspepsia antacids containing higher concentration of magnesium hydroxide would be helpful. Download
    • Studies On Effect of Guava Leaves Extract Against Selected Enteric Bacteria

      In the present work we evaluated the antibacterial activity of crude Guava (Psidium guajava) leaves extract in comparison with Standard antibiotics Cholistin, Erythromycein, Ciprofloxin, Methicillin, Ampicillin and Cephalosporin. For the present study following bacterial cultures were used those were Salmonella typhi (8 strains), Shigella dysenteriae (7 strains), Salmonella paratyphi A (5 strains), Salmonella paratyphi B (7strains), E.coli (4 strains), Citrobactor spp. (3 strains). The antimicrobial activity of Crude Guava leaves extract was represented in table 1. Guava leaves extract showed highest antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi strain I (ZOI-20mm), Shigella dysenteriae strain I (ZOI- 15mm), Salmonella paratyphi A strain II (ZOI-18mm), Salmonella paratyphi B strain V (ZOI- 20mm), E.coli strain III (ZOI- 14mm) and Citrobactor spp. strain III (ZOI- 20mm). Salmonella typhi strain V was observed sensitive to antibiotic Ciprofloxin (ZOI- 12mm). Shigella dysenteriae strain IV was observed sensitive to antibiotic Ampicillin (ZOI- 13mm) and Erythromycein (ZOI- 16mm). Salmonella paratyphi A strain III was observed sensitive to antibiotic Ciprofloxin (ZOI- 15mm) and Ampicillin (ZOI- 14mm). Salmonella paratyphi B strain V was observed sensitive to antibiotic Ciprofloxin (ZOI- 18mm) and Ampicillin (ZOI- 15mm). E.coli strain I was observed sensitive to antibiotic Cholistin (ZOI- 14mm), Ampicillin (ZOI-10mm), Cephalosporin (ZOI- 17mm) and Erythromycein (ZOI- 15mm). Citrobactor spp. strain I, was observed sensitive to antibiotic Cholistin (ZOI- 11mm). The results of this study showed that some pathogenic enteric bacteria were observed resistant to standard antibiotics but they were observed sensitive to the crude Guava leaves extract. The results of the present study also support the medicinal usage of the Guava leaves. Download
    • Study of Relationship between Blood Groups and Ischemic Heart Disease in Patients with Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery of Mazandaran Heart Center in Sari, 2012

      Ischemic heart disease is the most common cause of mortality in the developing countries. In Iran 15 million from 70 million people suffer from cardiovascular disease. The most important risk factors are age; male sex; family history; hyperlipidemia; hypertension; diabete mellitus; obesity and smoking. Blood group was studied as a risk factor for many diseases like peptic ulcer, carcinoma of stomach, periodontal diseases and diabetes mellitus. With the background of conflicting results, the present study was done to evaluate association of ABO blood groups and Rh with IHD in our setting. This analytic comparative study was done at the department of Cardiology, Mazandaran Heart Center Sari .Total 1020 persons were included in the study. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 16. ANOVA and Chi-square tests for significance were used. P-value less than 0.05 was taken as significant. There is not any association between ABO blood groups and Rh with ischemic heart disease (IHD) in our setting. But this study, showed definite higher family history risk factor with Rh positive blood groups. Download
    • Simultaneous Estimation of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole in Combined Dosage Form by UV-Spectrophotometric Methods

      Two simple, precise and accurate derivative spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. Method A is Area Under Curve method, which involved the measurement of area between 252 to 260 nm and 248 to 260 nm for the estimation of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole respectively. Method B applied Zero order derivative spectrophotometry, which involved measuring the absorbance values at 256 nm and 254 nm of Zero derivative spectrum, without mutual interference with a linearity range of 2-10µg/mL and 2-10µg/mL for the estimation of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole, respectively for both the methods. Results of analysis were statistically reported and were found to be satisfactory. Download
    • Sustained Release Multiparticulate Drug Delivery System of BCS Class I Drug by Extrusion Spheronization Technique

      The objective of the present study is to develop sustained release matrix pellet of Venlafaxine HCl by Extrusion-spheronization. As the drug is BCS Class I i.e. highly water soluble and highly permeable which is formulated to sustained release with HPMC K-100P and ethyl cellulose that deliver sustained release formulation for 24 h. The preliminary formulations are made with different HPMC grades like K-15, K-100P, K-100LV and ethyl cellulose. From preliminary formulations, P1 formulation is chosen for 32 factorial purpose by Design expert software. The F5 factorial formulation has a desired drug release pattern for 24 h. Download
    • Serum Heavy Metal Study In Female Wistar Rats Administered With Counterfeit Neurobion

      Purpose: While trace elements are known for the very important role they play as cofactors of diverse biochemical reactions, heavy metal on the other hand have been recognized for their toxic effects and the fact they do not carry out any meaningful role that is beneficial to a living mammalian system. Yet exposure has been reported through different sources, exposure through fake drug administration being one of them. The aim of the present study is to determine the serum levels of Cd, Pb, Al, Si, Hg, Ni, and As in 12-14 weeks old female Wistar rats administered with fake neurobion tablets at 30 mg/kg level. Method: Twelve of the eighteen rats used for the study were divided equally into 2 groups and administered with either 30 mg/kg BW fake neurobion or genuine products. Six other rats served as the control. Route of administration was by gastric gavage and blood was obtained through retro-orbital bleeding. Serum levels of arsenic, cadmium, aluminum, silicon, lead, mercury, and nickel were estimated by the atomic absorption spectrometric method. Statistical analysis was carried out on data obtained using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Differences were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Of all the heavy metals assessed, none was significantly different. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that the absence of the heavy metals in the fake neurobion used for the present study. Download
    • Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using leaflet extract of Nephrolepis exaltata L. and evaluation of antibacterial activity against human and plant pathogenic bacteria

      Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using leaflet extract of a fern Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) which reduces silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-Visible spectrophotometer and UV-Visible absorption spectra of the reaction mixture showed λmax at 420 nm. The average particles size was confirmed by XRD peaks was 24.76 nm. SEM image showed aggregates of spherical silver nanoparticles. Antibacterial efficiency of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by disc diffusion assay method. Silver nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumonia NCIM 2719, Proteus morgani NCIM 2719, Corynebacterium diptheriae, Pseudomonas testesteroniae NCIM 5098, Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2063, Escherichia coli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae. This cost-effective, eco-friendly and easily scald up biosynthesis method of silver nanoparticles using leaflet extract of a fern Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) will be compatible for pharmaceutical and medical applications. Download
    • Study on Protective Effect of Omega -3 Fatty Acid Rich Extract of Linium Usitatissimum Seeds on Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

      There are many diseases that are still considered as untreatable by most of the physicians, and epilepsy is one of those. Traditional healers claim that they can treat epilepsy by use of some natural components. The Indian Traditional Medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani are predominantly based on the use of herbal drugs/ products for medicinal benefits. Herbal drugs have gained importance and popularity in recent years because of their safety, efficacy and cost effectiveness. One of the important and well-documented uses of plant products is their use as nephro-protective agents. Hence, there is an ever increasing need for safe nephro-protective agent. Oxidative stress is a state where oxidative forces exceed the antioxidant systems due to loss of the balance between them. Thus due to easy availability of plant and its traditional uses, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of plant extract against Cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats by using biochemical parameters and antioxidant status in kidney of rats after oral administration of 100 and 200 mg/ kg body weight of extract. Download
    • Synthesis, Cytotoxicity and DNA Binding of Novel Binuclear Antitumor Complexes Formed by Linking Two "2,2'- Bipyridine Palladium (II)" Moieties Via Alkylene Bisdithiocarbamates

      Five novel dithiocarbamate- bridged binuclear palladium (II) complexes [(bpy) Pd (µ-al-bis-dtc) Pd (bpy)](NO3)2 (where alkylenebisdithiocarbamate, al-bis-dtc=ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (en-bis-dtc, 1); propylenebisdithiocarbamate (pn-bis-dtc, 2); butylenebisdithiocarbamate (bu-bis-dtc, 3); hexylenebisdithiocarbamate (he-bis-dtc, 4) and octylenebisdithiocarbamate (oc-bis-dtc, 5) were synthesized with 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) as capping ligand (Chart 1). They have been characterized by elemental analysis, UV-vis, FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopies and molar conductance. The results of elemental analysis and conductivity measurements confirmed the stoichiometry of ligands and their complexes while the characteristic absorption bands, resonance peaks in NMR and IR spectra confirmed the formation of ligand frameworks around the palladium ions. The biological activity of these palladium complexes was evaluated on chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line, K562, at micromolar concentration, and their targets seems to be DNA of the cell. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (Cc50) values of complex 2 is lower than cisplatin whereas other complexes show Cc50 values higher than cisplatin. The interaction of these complexes with highly polymerized calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was extensively studied by means of absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence titration spectra, ethidium bromide (EB) displacement and gel chromatography techniques. All of these water soluble complexes bound cooperatively and intercalatively to the CT-DNA at very low concentration. However, at higher concentration, they denature the DNA. Complexes 1 and 4 break the CT-DNA into two fractions and bound with both of them. Download
    • Stem Cells Therapy: An Innovative Slant in Drug Discovery Research

      The recognizable proof of ordinary and carcinogenic stem cell and the latest developments made in seclusion and principles of stem cells have quickly picked up consideration in the field of medicine discovery and regenerative prescriptions. The possibility of performing screens pointed at burgeoning, controlled separation, and toxicity and adequacy studies utilizing stem cells offers a solid stage for the medication finding process. Progresses made in the era of incited pluripotent stem cells from typical or unhealthy tissue serves as a stage to perform medicine screens pointed at creating cell-based treatments against disorders like Parkinson's ailment and diabetes. This review talks about the provision of stem cells and cancer stem cell in medicine screening and their part in supplementing, decreasing, and reinstating animal testing. Notwithstanding this, target distinguishing proof and real developments in the field of customized Medicine utilizing affected pluripotent cells are additionally examined. Download
    • Self Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Emesis

      Sparingly water soluble drugs such as domperidone offer challenges in developing a drug product with adequate bioavailability. The objective of the present work was to develop and characterize solid self emulsifying drug delivery system (S-SEDDS) of domperidone for filling into soft gelatine capsule. Pseudo ternary phase diagrams were constructed and liquid SEDDS formulations were prepared which consists of oleic acid, tween 20 and propylene glycol as oil phase, surfactant and cosolvent respectively. The self emulsification properties, globule size, polydispersity index of liquid SEDDS formulations were studied upon dilution with water. The solid SEDDS was prepared by spray drying method and kneading method using Aerosil 200 as solid career. The solid state characterization of the solid SEDDS was performed by SEM, DSC, and X-ray powder diffraction. The dissolution characteristics of solid SEDDS was investigated and compared with liquid SEDDS formulations and commercial formulation to ascertain the impact on self emulsifying properties following conversion. The results indicated that solid SEDDS showed comparable rate and extent of drug dissolution in a discriminating dissolution medium as liquid SEDDS indicating that the self emulsifying properties of SEDDS were unaffected following conversion. Also, the rate and extent of drug dissolution for solid intermediates was significantly higher than commercial tablet formulation. The results from this study demonstrate the potential use of SEDDS as a means of improving solubility, dissolution, and concomitantly the bioavailability. Download
    • Surface Tuning Using Gold Nanoparticles and Mixed Thiols

      SAM’s (Self Assembled Monolayer’s) are formed by modifying the glass surface at different stages using Silanes, Gold Nanoparticles (Au NPs) and mixture of thiols of different functional groups, chain lengths and proportionate. The synthesized intermediate surfaces and SAM’s obtained are characterized for understanding their behavior in terms of physical and chemical heterogeneities. The gold nanoparticles behavior can be observed using the visible spectrum obtained from UV spectro-photometer. The change in chemical heterogeneities are observed by measuring the contact angle using two variant small molecular weight liquids (water and ethylene glycol) on various synthesized intermediate surface. Download
    • Serotonin In Brain: A Cue for Alzheimer’s Disease

      Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a common fatal neurodegenerative disorder is manifested by core features of progressive memory impairment, visuospatial decline, aphasia, agnosia, loss of executive function and severe neuropsychiatric changes like hallucinations and depression. AD is characterized by cholinergic dysfunction, but treatments targeting the cholinergic system alone have yielded disappointing results. Present review focuses on the investigation of possible involvement of serotonin (5-HT) in pathogenesis of AD beside its versatile role in brain physiology. Serotonin has been implicated in almost every conceivable physiologic or behavioural function like affect, aggression, appetite, cognition, memory, sleep, emesis, endocrine functions, gastrointestinal functions, motor functions, neurotrophism, perception, sensory functions, sex, and vascular function etc. In addition to its physiological role, growing evidence suggests the neuromodulator serotonin also regulates the connectivity of the brain by modulating developmental cellular migration and cyto-architecture. Pathologically, it is involved in depression, aggression, anxiety and disturbances in food intake. This plethora of roles has consequently led to the development of many compounds of therapeutic value, including various antidepressant, antipsychotic and antiemetic drugs. Investigation of serotonin is encouraged by the act that there is serotonin loss in normal aging and neuropsychiatric diseases of late life which may contribute to behavioural changes. Continuous researches over the years have found that instead of malfunction of single neurotransmitter, AD is a multineurotransmitter deficit thus role of other neurotransmitter particularly 5HT, beside Ach needs thorough investigation. Download
    • Significance of Plant Bitters In The Field of Pharmacognosy

      Bitters are imperative; everyone needs some bitters in their diet. No traditional culture could have imagined a diet virtually devoid of any bitter foods—as we seem to have established in most modern diets. The quality of a plant’s bitterness is widely variable in both character and degree. Many bitter herbs are more accurately referred to as foods, while others are decidedly medicinal in their action. Bitter foods should be considered essential to good nutrition, whereas bitters of a more medicinal nature should be reserved to address specific concerns not remedied by dietary bitters. The bitters have been proven to be effective in curing all allergic, metabolic and immunological conditions where the diagnosis points to the digestion. Download
    • Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: Overview on Excipients

      Nanotechnology is now a day’s emerging fields in drug delivery approach. Solid lipid nanoparticles are colloidal particles of 1-1000 nm size and made up of lipids solid at room temperature, biodegradable, biocompatible. It gives controlled or sustained release and if surface modified then target release also. Compatible with Various route for administration and no toxicity problem make it versatile. Lots of methods available for preparation and scale up are also easy. For any of the dosage form it’s important to select excipients on various criteria. This review gives brief idea about excipients and its suitability for solid lipid nanoparticles. Download
    • Sterilization in Dental Practice – A Review

      In Dentistry, critical instruments are those used to penetrate soft tissue or bone, or enter into or contact the bloodstream or other normally sterile tissue. They should be sterilized after each use. Sterilization is achieved by various methods. Traditional sterilization methods are often time consuming for practical use. Today's sterilizers are sophisticated, automatic, and computerized devices that accurately execute programmed jobs, creating uniform conditions inside pressure vessels to achieve sterilization. Specialized knowledge is necessary to ensure that the right cycle is selected; this requires an educated and competent operator. Sterilization practices, standards and products are changing in the health care system and continues to undergo dramatic restructuring. The causes of this restructuring are hospital consolidations, implementation of diagnostic-related-group reimbursement, cost-containment programs, and increasing acceptance of disposable packs. Download