• Preliminary Phytochemical and Trace metal Screening from Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

      Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp is a perennial legume shrub belong to the family Fabaceae. Its application in respiratory infection, vermifuge properties, anti – ulcer, wound healing, dermatosis, convulsions, hepatoprotective is practised by the villagers. The aim of the present study focussed on the phytochemical constituents and Heavy metal concentration of Ethanolic extract of leaves from Cajanus cajan. The leaves were collected from Tiruchirappalli District, Southern India. The primary metabolites like Chlorophyll content, Carbohydrate, Protein and Lipids were present in the ethanolic extract of leaves. Likewise the secondary metabolites revealed the presence of the bioactive compounds such as Steroids, Sugar, Alkaloids, Phenols, Flavonoids, Tannins, Glycosides and Amino acids. The Trace metal concentrations were analysed from the powdered plant leaves by 797 VA Computrace Voltammetry, Mertrohm. This study will provide referential information of anti-microbial and anti-fouling efficacy of the plant Cajanus cajan. Download
    • Preliminary Phytochemical and Trace metal Screening from Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

      Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp is a perennial legume shrub belong to the family Fabaceae. Its application in respiratory infection, vermifuge properties, anti – ulcer, wound healing, dermatosis, convulsions, hepatoprotective is practised by the villagers. The aim of the present study focussed on the phytochemical constituents and Heavy metal concentration of Ethanolic extract of leaves from Cajanus cajan. The leaves were collected from Tiruchirappalli District, Southern India. The primary metabolites like Chlorophyll content, Carbohydrate, Protein and Lipids were present in the ethanolic extract of leaves. Likewise the secondary metabolites revealed the presence of the bioactive compounds such as Steroids, Sugar, Alkaloids, Phenols, Flavonoids, Tannins, Glycosides and Amino acids. The Trace metal concentrations were analysed from the powdered plant leaves by 797 VA Computrace Voltammetry, Mertrohm. This study will provide referential information of anti-microbial and anti-fouling efficacy of the plant Cajanus cajan. Download
    • Prescription Pattern of Drugs In Pregnancy Induced Hypertension In A Tertiary Care Hospital

      Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the drug utilization pattern of antihypertensive drugs in pregnancy induced hypertension. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted by department of Pharmacy practice in collaboration with the Department of Obstetrics in a tertiary care hospital at Karnataka after taking permission from the Institutional Review Board. WHO basic indicators were indicators were used for studying the prescribing pattern of drugs. The study involves collection and documentation of case sheets and treatment charts of inpatients with a diagnosis of pregnancy induced hypertension along with other co morbidities. Results: Out of the total prescriptions studied the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive was nifedipine , followed by labetalol and methyldopa . Majority drugs prescribed were from category C and B. Single drug therapy was prescribed in 77.01% patients. The use of fixed dose combinations was low. Conclusion: The incidence of single drugs therapy and two drugs was high. Nifedipine was the commonly prescribed antihypertensive. None of the prescribed drugs were from teratogenic category D and X. Download
    • Patient Safety Culture In A Private Indian Dental Institute- A Pilot Study

      Context: Patient safety in dentistry is a critical dimension of healthcare. Dentistry cannot remain on sidelines on the issue of patient safety. Aims: The objective of this study was to describe the patient safety culture among faculty, students (postgraduates, undergraduates and interns) and dental assistants in a private Indian dental Institute. Settings and Design: A survey on patient safety culture developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) was used to measure attitudes of faculty, students and dental assistants working in the clinics of a South Indian Dental Institute, towards the patient safety. Methods and Material: The questionnaire was distributed among faculty, students and dental assistants with printed instructions for completion. Statistical analysis used: SPSS 11.5 was used for statistical analysis. Percentages of responses were calculated for each of the 12 dimensions for safety culture survey among the groups. Item total likert scores were calculated for each dimension. Results: 86% response rate was seen in this survey. ‘Overall Perceptions of safety’ was reported positive by 59% of the respondents. 75% of the respondents reported positive for the category of ‘adverse effects reporting’. ‘Supervisor expectation and actions promoting patient safety’ were reported positive by 65% of respondents. 64% respondents reported positively for ‘Organisational learning/continuous process’. ‘Team works within units’ were reported positive by 71% of individuals. ‘Communication openness’ and ‘Feedback and communication about errors’ were reported positive by 76% and 68% of individuals respectively. ‘Management support’ and ‘team work across units’ were reported positive by 64% and 60% respectively. Categories of ‘Non punitive response to errors’, ‘Staffing’ and ‘transition of patients’ were reported positive by only 26%, 37% and 44% of respondents.Significant differences were seen for age for the dimensions of Organisational learning/continuous process and staffing (p<0.03).Dimensions of ‘Teamwork within units’, ‘Communication openness’ and ‘Feedback and communication about errors’ were significantly higher among males. (p<0.01). Conclusions: Positive perception regarding patient safety was less amongst interns and undergraduate students as compared to the faculty. Download
    • Pre Clinical Toxicity Evaluation of Recombinant Pegylated Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (Rh PEG-GCSF)

      Recombinant protein technology produces drugs for human therapy in unprecedented quantity and quality. Pegfilgrastim is in a class of medications called colony stimulating factors. It works by helping the body make more neutrophils. The aim of the present study is to carry preclinical toxicity study on Acute toxicity and Skin sensitization study by using recombinant Pegylated Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor in rats and mice-Acute toxicity study and Guine pigs – skin sensitization test. The objective is to assess the safety profile of rh PEG-GCSF in Swiss albino mice and Sprague Dawley rats and guinea pigs for the treatment of cancer based on the guidelines of EMEA & DBT. In the present study the preclinical toxicity study is carried by conducting Acute Toxicity Study & Guinea Pig Skin Maximisation Test. There was no mortality or morbidity observed during the 14 days study period. No toxic signs and abnormal behaviour was observed in the Group III (Intravenous) and Group IV (subcutaneous) animals, which were exposed to the test compound at 10 times of intended therapeutic dose. There was no mortality or morbidity observed during the 14 days study period. No toxic signs and abnormal behaviour was observed in the Group I (Intravenous) and Group II (subcutaneous) animals, which were exposed to the test compound at 10 times of intended therapeutic dose. On the basis of the results, interpreted according to GPMT Magnusson/Kligman and OECD TG 406, the skin sensitization test in guinea pigs, the substance “rh G-CSF” –pegfilgrastim must be considered as non sensitizer for skin. Download
    • Phytosomes: An Emerging Nanotechnology For Improved Bioavailability of Phytomedicines – A Review

      Novel complexation technique named as `phytosome’ plays an important role to facilitate absorption and improve bioavailability. The delivery of phytomedicine is always challenging due to poor aqueous solubility, poor permeation, low systemic availability and extensive first pass metabolism. Drug molecules from natural sources and dietary soy phospholipids are complexed and generated cell like structures called phytosomes. Phytosome act as a bridge between novel delivery system and conventional delivery system and has effectively enhanced the bioavailability of many popular herbal extracts including milk thistle, Ginko biloba, grape seed, green tea, hawthorn, Ginseng etc and can be developed for various therapeutic uses or as dietary supplements. Current review highlights recent information, on commercial preparation of phytosomes as well as the various other novel approaches for delivery of herbal constituents. Download
    • Preparation and Evaluation of Myoconductive ECG Gel

      Hydrogel formulation provides better application property and stability. Hydrogels are the swellable polymeric materials, have been widely investigated as the carrier for drug delivery systems. The hydrogel can be defined as a cross-linked polymeric network which has the capacity to hold water within its porous structure. Conductive gel used in electrocardiography. The electrode gel greatly affects the signals from the skin to electrode. Hydrogel should be greaseless, odourless and non-staining. In addition to getting information about cardiac status, respiratory rate monitoring and ventilator triggering are possible from ECG gel. The gel can be easily removed after use. Hydrogels are the semi-rigid systems in which the movement of the dispersing medium is restricted by an interlacing three-dimensional network of particles or solvated macro-molecules in the dispersed phase. Physical and /or chemical cross-linking may be involved. The interlacing and consequential internal friction is responsible for increased viscosity and the semisolid state. Gels are evaluated by following parameters such as pH, viscosity, spreadability, skin irritation studies, sound speed, electric impendence, sound attenuation , sound impendence frequency. Download
    • Preparation and Evaluation of Floating Microspheres of Antihypertensive Drug

      In the present study, the attempt have been made to develop GRDDS by using ethyl cellulose and HPMC as release retarding material by solvent evaporation technique. The microspheres were prepared by using different concentrations of polymers individually as well as in combination of both the polymers. The compatibility study of drug and polymer was carried out by IR, DSC analysis. The prepared microspheres were characterized for drug content, percentage yiled, particle size analysis surface morphology and % buoyancy. It was observed that increase in the concentration of polymer, there is increase in the entrapment efficiency. The effect of polymer concentration on the in vitro release of the telmisartan from microspheres was also studied. It can be seen that increase in the polymer concentration, decreases the rate of drug release dramatically. It is observed that the microspheres containing both the polymers i.e. EC and HPMC showed best results. Download
    • Pharmacognostic and Antimicrobial Screening of Leaf Extracts of Annona muricata

      Background: Medicinal plants have continued to attract attention in the global search for effective antimicrobial agents that can combat resistant pathogens that have been rendering many conventional drugs obsolete in the treatment of infections. Aim: To determine the pharmacognostic and antimicrobial effect of the leaf of Annona muricata. Materials and methods: The pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaf of A.muricatawas carried out using microscopic, macroscopic, chemomicroscopic, and phytochemical methods; while the antimicrobial activity was determined using agar cup diffusion technique. Results: The Chemomicroscopic evaluation revealed the presence of lignin, starch, and cellulose. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and carbohydrates. The extract showed varied inhibitory effects against the test-microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillusniger and Candida albicans at concentrations 10-100 g/ml. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated the antimicrobial potential of Annona muricata and the basis for its inclusion in herbal preparations used to treat infectious diseases. Download
    • Prostate Cancer Stem Cell –Future Outlook

      Prostate cancer is presently a typical ailment in men more than 50 years old. Medicinal treatments for prostate cancer are in light of disclosures from the mid-twentieth century, and in the long term are seldom curative. Most medicines are coordinated towards an androgen receptor expressing, highly proliferative target cell, which does undoubtedly structure the greater part of cells in a prostate tumor. Notwithstanding, by conjuring the presence of a cancer stem cell which, in the same way as typical epithelial stem cell in the prostate, does not represent androgen receptor and is generally silent, the observed imperviousness to most therapeutic treatments can be clarified. The phenotype of the prostate cancer stem cell is that of a basal cell and culture derived from cancer, yet not benign tissues, express a variety of prostate cancer related RNAs. Moreover, stem cells filtered on the premise of alpha2beta1 high integrin and CD133 cell surface antigen articulation, from a culture of Gleason 4 (2+2) prostate tumor (P4E6), had the capacity to form numerous intra prostatic tumors in naked mice when joined orthotopically in a matrigel attachment containing human prostatic stroma. The final tumors reexpressed androgen receptor and showed a histology like that of a Gleason 4 cancer. The presence of prostate cancer stem cells offers a hypothetical clarification for a large portion of the persevering vulnerabilities encompassing the etiology and treatment of the most usually diagnosed tumor in US men. The investigation of cancer stem cells in prostate, is basically reliant on the accessibility of untainted cell population, a circumstance entangled by the heterogeneity of prostate tumors. Be that as it may, choice of cells with a CD133+/α2β1 integrin/ CD44+ phenotype improves for a tumor-starting population from human prostate cancer. Among the most squeezing needs is for persisting treatment in subjects who have encountered failure of hormonal medicines. Since the putative cancer stem cell do ‘not express androgen receptor, it is liable to be immune from most androgen-based treatments, and an inalienable hereditary instability would empower the tumor to develop the new variations present in hormone-refractory disease. Prostate cancer stem cell have a special gene articulation signature that can likewise be identified with Gleason grade and patient result. The shortage of cancer stem cell in a prostate tumor will presumably confine their handiness in cancer finding and visualization. Be that as it may, the rise of new stem cell therapeutic targets not just will oblige new tests for efficacy (due to their generally silent nature), additionally holds genuine promise of more enduring medicines to enlarge those presently coordinated against the remaining tumor cells, which embody 99.9% of tumor mass, however incomprehensibly have a poor tumor-initiating limitation. Download
    • Phytochemical Investigation and Antiulcer Activity of Momordia Charantia (Linn.) Seeds

      Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) is a plant, reported for its variety of ethnic medicinal uses. Hence we have planned to screen antiulcer activity of seeds of the plant with the various extracts.Coarsely powdered seeds were successively extracted with petroleumether,chloroform,methanol and macerated with water and all the extracts were subjected for phytochemical screening to identify different phytoconstituents. Ld50 studies for all extracts were conducted upto the dose level of 1.5g/kg by following OECD of guidelines No.425. Anti ulcer activity was evaluated in animal model like Pylorus ligation induced ulcer model in rats. Preliminary phytochemical studies revealed the presence of fats and oils alkaloids, proteins, flavonoids in all extracts of M.charantia. No mortality was observed with all extracts up to the maximum dose level of 1.5 g/kg. Further all extracts at 150 mg/kg p.o doses significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the ulcer score, ulcer index, free acidity and total acidity in Pylorus ligation induced ulcer models in rats. The present study revealed the antiulcer activity of seed extracts of M.charantia and the activities are due to the presence of phytochemical constituents such as fats and oils alkaloids, proteins and Flavonoids as these phytochemical constituents were already reported for the above mentioned effects. Download
    • Preformulation Study of Raloxifene Hydrochloride for Transdermal Drug Delivery

      The aim of the present work was to perform the preformulation studies of Raloxifene hydrochloride to determine certain key physicochemical parameters which can be further used to develop a feasible transdermal formulation. Preformulation testing is done to generate data useful to the formulator in developing stable and bioavailable dosage form. On oral administration RLH undergoes extensive first pass metabolism resulting in poor bioavailability so the target was to prepare a transdermal drug delivery system (patch) of RLH to increase its bioavailability. The drive of formulating a patch is to provide a safe, simple and alternative route of administration for the prevention of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. Development of analytical method, solubility profile, partition coefficient, particle size and drug excipient interaction were investigated as per the requirements of preformulation study. All the results found testify the candidature of RLH for transdermal drug delivery. Download
    • Phytochemical Studies and Safety Evaluation of Terminalia pallida Roots and Boswelia ovalifoliolata Roots

      Terminalia pallida brandis and Boswellia ovalifoliolata are most commonly found plants in the south India. Methanolic and n-Hexane extract of Terminalia pallida roots and Boswellia ovalifoliolata roots were analysed for photochemical studies and acute toxicity study. Safety evaluation of both the plants in both the extracts is essential for the evaluation of any pharmacological activity. Present study clarifies path for pharmaceutical investigation of Terminalia pallida roots and Boswellia ovalifoliolata roots in methanolic and n-Hexane extract. Download
    • Phytonutrients: Add Colors To Diet For Better Health

      Fruits and vegetables are major constituents of our daily diet. They are important sources of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals. Other than these ingredients they also contain bioactive substances called as phytonutrients or phytochemicals. Phytonutrients are also called as phytopigments as they provide color to the fruits and vegetables. The darker the fruit or vegetable,higher would be the Phytonutrients content. They can be classified in to five different color groups Red, Green, White, Orange/Yellow and Purple/ Blue. Unlike vitamins and minerals phytonutrients are not essential to life for development, but they have antioxidant property which protects against cell damage, improves immunity against bacterial and viral infections and decreases the development of chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases. They also have anticancer property which protects against cancers. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of certain medical illness. They do not have adverse effects when compared to allopathic drugs. They are also cost effective and hence reduce the health care cost. It is important to encourage people to consume adequate amount of phytonutrients in their daily diet. Pharmaceutical industries should also try to extract phytonutrients and make it available to people for consumption at reasonable cost .The present article is framed to give information regarding important phytonutrients, their sources and uses. Download
    • Phytosomes: Magnifying Power of Herbal Extract- An Systematic Overview

      In the recent days, most of the prevailing diseases and nutritional disorders are treated with natural medicines. Several plant extracts and phyto constituents, despite having excellent bioactivity in vitro demonstrate less or no in vivo actions due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size or both, resulting in poor absorption and bioavailability. So, much work has been directed towards the development of new concept in herbal delivery system i.e., phytosomes which are better absorbed, utilized and as a result produce better results than conventional herbal extracts. Phytosomes often known as herbosomes. The term phyto means plant while some means cell-like. Phytosomes are little cell like structure. Phytosome is composed of phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine, producing a lipid compatible molecular complex with other constituents. Phytosomal complexes were first investigated for cosmetic applications. But phytosome process was developed and patented by Indena, a leading supplier of nutraceutical ingredients like milk thistle, ginkgo biloba, grape seed, green tea, hawthorn, ginseng etc. Phytosomes are superior to liposomes due to complex formation ratio of component and phospholipids is 2:1 and 1:1 respectively, much better absorption and stability profile. Development of phytosomes is at the budding stages in India and abroad. It has a lot of potential in the field of medicine, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Download
    • Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacogenetics (PGx) A Connexion to Personalized Cancer Therapy

      In the recent years, headways in Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx) have gradually revealed the genetic premise of inter individual contrasts in drug reactions. A tangible parcel of these developments has been made in the field of anticancer treatment. PGx mostly center to illuminate the genomic elements of medication mien and its impact. As tumor chemotherapy is generally non-particular and has limited remedial index, there is an incredible probability for pharmacogenomics to enhance treatment by either diminishing the various types of toxicity or escalating the efficacy. As of late, the US FDA has redesigned approx. 30 anticancer biomarkers to incorporate PGx data which incorporates the unpredictability of hereditary information (e.g. Cancer mutation, chromosomal translocation and germ line mutations). Download
    • Peripheral Neuropathy & Animal Models of Peripheral Neuropathy: A Review

      Peripheral neuropathy is defined as damage to the peripheral nervous system resulting in a syndrome of sensory loss, muscle weakness and atrophy along with vasomotor symptoms, alone or in any combination. There are more than 100 known types of peripheral neuropathy, each with its own characteristic symptoms, pattern of development, and prognosis. One study estimated that the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in the family medicine setting is 8 percent in persons 55 years and older. The prevalence in the general population may be as high as 2.4 percent. A community-based study estimated the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to be 26.4 percent. Peripheral neuropathy may be either inherited or acquired. Causes of acquired peripheral neuropathy include physical injury (trauma) to a nerve, tumors, toxins (Lolin Y, 1989), autoimmune responses, nutritional deficiencies, alcoholism (Ammendola A et al, 2001), and vascular and metabolic disorders. Symptoms are related to the type of affected nerve and may be seen over a period of days, weeks, or years. Muscle weakness is the most common symptom of motor nerve damage. Diagnosing peripheral neuropathy is often difficult because the symptoms are highly variable. A thorough neurological examination is usually required and involves taking an extensive patient, performing tests that may identify the cause of the neuropathic disorder, and conducting tests to determine the extent and type of nerve damage. The review focused on the drugs used to treat peripheral neuropathy. It included the Nutritive supplements, Topical Capsaicin Cream, Acupuncture, Magnets, Minerals & Drugs. The different animal models of the peripheral neuropathy also reviewed . Download
    • Prostate cancer in Amazon native Indian: a case report

      Background: Prostate cancer is highly prevalent worldwide and its incidence shows marked disparities between different countries and races. Age, race/ethnicity, and family history are the strongest known risk factors for this neoplasm. The aim of the present report is to describe the clinical and prostatic characteristics in Amazon Indian men, belonging to the Yanomami ethnic group, which is one of the few indigenous groups in which incidence and prevalence rates of prostate cancer are the lowest in the world. Case presentation: A 47-year-old native Indian male of the Yanomami ethnic presented with obstructive voiding symptoms including intermittency, hesitancy and sensation of incomplete bladder emptying. He was not on medication and was otherwise in good health. Physical examination revealed normal genitalia; no hernias. Digital rectal exam showed 25 g prostate without nodularity. Urinalysis revealed parameters within clinically normal ranges. Conclusion: Though the incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer is the lowest among native American Indians, the novelty of the presented case lies less in the case being an incidence of prostate cancer, than in the case being diagnosed with the disease. It might be difficult for these indigenous people, leaving in a knit community with strong cultural beliefs, to travel to a diagnostic centre far away from the village, in a strange and perceivably intimidating environment. Nonetheless, the case definitely emphasizes that the cases of prostate cancer might be under-reported in these areas, due to socio-economic and geographical difficulties, and difficulty in accessing healthcare facilities, making diagnosis – and not incidence – rare. Download
    • Preparation, Characterization and In-Vitro Evaluation of Extended Release of Matrix Tablets

      The present study was aimed to formulate and evaluate the Papaverine extended release tablet using polymers such as Eudragit grades like RSPO, L100, S100, Polywax and HPMC in order to decrease the dosing frequency. Papaverine extended-release tablets are the hydrochloride of an alkaloid obtained from opium or prepared synthetically. It belongs to the benzylisoquinoline group of alkaloids. The principal therapeutic action of Papaverine is its relaxant effect on smooth muscles, which leads to penile erection.. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method and evaluated by different parameters such as weight variation, hardness, friability, thickness, drug content uniformity and in vitro drug release study. All the tablets passed the tests. The interaction between drug and polymers were determined by using FTIR studies. The FTIR study reveals that there is no interaction between drug and polymers. Based on in-vitro drug release study F11- formulation showed extended release effect up to 18 hours compared to other formulations. The drug release pattern was followed by First order and Korsmeyer-peppas model. Download
    • Pharmacognostical Investigations on Medicinal Plants

      Plants have always been used by humans to find cures for its diseases. After a prosperous period for synthetic molecules, the craze for natural plant substances is now a fact. The expanding market for medicinal plants, because of globalization, requires technical botanical identifications, standardized, to allow a secure commerce. The aim of our work is to establish a pharmacognostical standard methodology, through various examples, leading to useful standards trade of medicinal plants. This study, divided into three parts, include macroscopic and microscopic analysis of Origanum compactum, Opuntia ficus indica, Vitex agnus castus and Stephania tetrandra. Another part of this work concerns the screening phytochemicals such as TLC for Viburnum, Hieracium pilosella and Secale, HPLC chromatographic profiles for Vitex agnus castus and Stephania tetrandra and UV dosage on Hieracium pilosella, which allowed us to highlight the main phytochemical markers for each plant, for example. These results provide on the one hand, qualitative characterization by TLC and also quantitatively by HPLC and UV dosage. The last part of our work concerns the evaluation of physico-chemical characteristics of Hieracium pilosella, Piper nigrum and Piper longum. This work shows the usefulness of such analysis to create a standardized method for botanical and chemical identification, always necessary before using medicinal plants. Download