• Needs and Necessity of Polyploidy in Medicinal Plants

      Polyploids are organisms with multiple sets of chromosomes in excess of the diploid number. Polyploidy is common in nature and provides a major mechanism for adaptation and speciation. Approximately 50-70% of angiosperms, which include many crop plants, have undergone polyploidy during their evolutionary process. Flowering plants form polyploids at a significantly high frequency of 1 in every 100,000 plants. Many studies have been carried out to understand the nature of polyploidism. The polyploid condition may bring about several advantages compared to the diploid state. Polyploids often show phenotypes that are not present in their diploid progenitors or exceed the range of the contributing species. Some of these traits may play a role in heterosis or could favor adaptation to new ecological niches. Advances in genomics and sequencing technology may create unprecedented opportunities for discovering and monitoring the molecular effects of polyploidization. Through this review, we provide an overview of technologies and strategies that may allow an in-depth analysis of polyploid genomes. After introducing some basic aspects on the origin and genetics of polyploids, we highlight the main tools available for genome and gene expression analysis and summarize major findings. In the last part of this review, the implications of next generation sequencing are briefly discussed. The accumulation of knowledge on polyploid formation, maintenance, and divergence at whole-genome and subgenome levels will not only help plant biologists to understand how plants have evolved and diversified, but also assist plant breeders in designing new strategies for crop improvement. Download
    • Nipah Virus (NiV): An Emerging Potential Threat to South East Asia

      Nipah virus is an emerging zoonotic virus that can cause lethal respiratory manifestations and encephalitis. Though originated in Malaysia, scattered infections from nipah virus are found in Thailand, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh and regions of Southeast Asia. Pteropus fruit bats are the natural reservoirs and from them infection can spread to humans and some other animals. This infection can be transmitted from human to other humans as well as from infected pigs to humans. Currently we are at a greater risk of nipah infection due to our limited knowledge, rapid spread, migration activities among people , high case mortality ,inefficient treatment and no vaccines. Diagnosis modalities include ELISA, PCR, immunofluorescence assays and culture of virus. Nipah virus mainly affects respiratory tract causing influenza like symptoms but some patients also present with encephalitis which leads to ultimate death. As the case fatality rate is high and treatment is mainly supportive, prevention plays the main role in controlling infection. Download
    • Novel Approach of Treatment for Beta Blocker and Calcium Channel Blocker Toxicity, a High Dose Insulin Therapy

      Poison-induced cardiogenic shock (PICS) as a result of beta-blocker (β-blocker) or calcium channel blocker (CCB) overdose is a common and highly life-threatening condition. Conventional therapies, including fluid resuscitation, atropine, cardiac pacing, calcium, glucagon, and vasopressors often fail to improve hemodynamic status. High-dose insulin (HDI) is an emerging theraphy for PICS. In this article, we discuss the existing literature and highlight the therapeutic success and potential of HDI. Based on the current literature, which is limited primarily to case series and animal models, the authors conclude that HDI can be effective in restoring hemodynamic stability, and recommend considering its use in patients with PICS that is not responsive to traditional therapies. Future studies should be undertaken to determine the optimal dose and duration of therapy for HDI in PIC. Download
    • Novel UV Spectrophotometric Determination of Rabeprazole Sodium In Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

      Rabeprazole (RBZ) sodium is a substituted benzimidazole that inhibits gastric acid secretion and used for the treatment of erosive or ulcerative GERD, DU and hypersecretory syndromes including ZES. In present work, a simple, sensitive, accurate and economical spectroscopic method has been developed for the estimation of Rabeprazole in Bulk and its pharmaceutical dosage forms. An absorption maximum was found to be at 292 nm with the solvent system 0.05N NaOH. The drug follows Beer law in the range of 2-18 μg/ml with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The percentage recovery of Rabeprazole ranged from 99.8 to 100.2 % in pharmaceuticaldosage form. Results of the analysis were validated for accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ and were found to be satisfactory. The proposed method is simple, rapid and suitable for the routine quality control analysis. Download
    • Nucleotide Sequencing and Putative Conserved Domains Analysis of Clostridium Perfringens Type A Alpha Toxin Gene Strain Isolated in Iran

      Alpha-toxin is produced by all Clostridium perfringens strains but type A produces higher amounts than the other types. In the present study, an isolation of C. perfringens type A alpha toxin gene cloning in E. coli for in silico analysis of its putative conserved domains sequences and also as a candidate for recombinant vaccine production was studied. High molecular weight genomic DNA of C. perfringens type A was isolated and cpa was amplified using one pair of primers. NdeI and XhoI restriction endonuclease sequences and flanking regions were included in the 5' end of forward end and 3' end of reverse primers, respectively. 1094 bp gene was ligated into 2974 bp pJET1.2blunt recombinant vector and 4068 bp pJETAα recombinant vector was produced. After pJETAα recombinant cloning vector extraction, Nucleotide sequence and 364 amino acids protein sequence was deposited in GenBank. In silico analysis of these sequences showed several putative conserved domains. Region 11-244 is a "ZnPC-S1P1". Region 2-249 is "PLAT". Region 4-246 is a zinc dependent phospholipase C. Region 14-207 is a zinc dependent phospholipase C. Region 265-349 is PLAT/LH2 domain. Region274-349 is PLAT domain of 12/15-lipoxygenase. This analysis revealed that amino acids number 15, 72, 130, 134, 140, 152 and 156 are "Zn binding site (ion binding site). Download
    • Narrative Review: A Rational Approach to Needle Free Insulin Technology

      Needle free injection techniques can be used to administer vaccines and medications in the pork industry. In this review we have discussed history of diabetes mellitus with its whole introduction, types of insulin, need for needle free insulin technology, insulin pumps, intraject drug delivery, current needle free devices in the market. Needle free injection offers a fast, effective route of administration. Needle free injection technology has been used widely in clinical practice for many decades and has been shown to be safe and effective for the administration of many different medications for a variety of applications, including immunization and mass inoculation of large populations. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that has a major impact on the lives of people with diabetes and their families and may complicate family functioning. An insulin injection is always became a painful experience to a diabetic patient. It definitely affect the patient compliance of the diabetic patient. The needle free insulin technology is the best alternative to the pains and needles. With oral drug delivery there is one another drug delivery that is insulin drug delivery with osmotic pump and handheld controllable injections. The future work that would most benefit the controllable NFTI project would be to create a tissue model that would allow the correlation of jet power with depth of injection. This also has implications for a human market for this device. Future work in this area could drastically improve healthcare for animals and humans alike. Download
    • Novel Carrier Systems For Oral Delivery Of Insulin

      The oral route is considered to be the most convenient and desired route of drug delivery, especially when repeated or routine administration is necessary 1. Insulin is usually administered to diabetic patients through subcutaneous injection. However, the problems encountered with subcutaneous insulin injections are pain, allergic reactions, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin lipodystrophy around the injection site 2. Insulin if administered via the oral route will help eliminate the pain caused by injection, psychological barriers associated with multiple daily injections such as needle anxiety 3 and possible infections 4. In addition, oral insulin is advantageous because it is delivered directly to the liver, its primary site of action, via the portal circulation, a mechanism very similar to endogenous insulin; subcutaneous insulin treatment however does not replicate the normal dynamics of endogenous insulin release, resulting in a failure to achieve a lasting glycemic control in patients 5, 6. In light of the above distinct benefits, pharmaceutical technologists have been trying to design an oral delivery system for insulin. Such is the interest in oral insulin delivery that some pharmaceutical companies are solely focused on it. Download
    • Nanotechnology and Overview on Nanoparticle Drug Delivery An Evolutionary Step toward Curing Cancer

      The scenario present in this article is to focus on areas of research in caner and its therapy. An outline is explained here related to cancer and its therapeutics. It is possible to design and construct targeted with least side effects system by application of nanotechnology. At Nano scale, novel properties are present with nanoparticle making them magic bullets to kill various diseases. Here it is explored that nanoparticles have so much potential to be used as carriers, selective, targeted system. In the recent years, due to lots of changes and advancement in technique, facility etc. scope for dosage form design has been widened. Download