• In Vitro Evaluation of Anticancer Activity of Methnaolic Extract of borassus Flabellifer linn. Leaves on Different Human Cancer Cell Lines

      Identification of new anticancer medicinedevoidof life threatening side effects as that of synthetic anticancer drug is the need of today’s cancer treatment. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine is based on plant as a source of medicine. Medicinal plants such as Picrorhiza KurroaRoyle ex Benth., Cetrus deodaraRoxband herbal formulations like Triphala ghrita, Sthauneyaka and Madhusnuhi rasayana are mentioned in the Ayurveda for the treatment of tumour. Plants ofBorrasus family are well known fortheir medicinal and nutritional values.Borassus flabellifer Linn. is traditionally important medicinal plant and is widely distributed in India.The methanolic extractof Borassus flabellifer Linn.was screened against colon cancer (HCT15), Human lung cancer (Hop65) and Human hepatoma (HEPG2) cell lines using SulforhodamineB (SRB) assay. Adriamycin was used as a standard to compare the results of methanolic leaves extract of Borassus flabellifer Linn.The findings revealed that extract do not inhibit growth of these cell lines with no potential anticancer effects. These results indicate that methanolic extract of Borassus flabellifer Linn.is not effective against these cancer cell lines. However, further studies are needed to test extract against other cancer cell lines to reveal its anticancer effect. Download
    • In-Vitro Antilithiatic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Codiaeum Variegatum (L.) Blume

      Objective: The aim of the study is to investigate the antilithiatic activity of ethanolic extract of Codiaeum Variegatum (L.) Blume by in-vitro method. Methods: The ethanolic extract was evaluated for its antilithiatic activity by preparing synthetic urine. The crystal size development was monitored in sample drops every five minutes by polarized microscope. The experiments were carried in absence of plant extract and in presence of 25, 50, 75, and 100% of ethanolic extracts. Result: In the presence of plants extracts, the length and the width of the crystals were reduced. The average length of the crystals grown in the presence of the inhibitors was less than that of the control sample. Conclusion: In-vitro study shows that the ethanolic extract posses antilithiatic activity and further in vivo study is required to confirm its mechanism of action. Download
    • Isolation, Characterization and Biological Activities of 1-(5-Hydroxypentyloxy) Propan-2-One from Ethanolic Rhizome Extract of Kaempferia galanga

      Plants contain several phytocompounds that shows interaction with various proteins involved in diseases. An isolation and characterization of a phytocompound from ethanolic rhizome extract of K. galanga was conducted. Characterization of a novel compound was done using UV, proton, 13C, mass and IR spectra’s. K. galanga contains a novel phytocompound 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one identified based on spectra’s. Various biological activities like antioxidant, antimicrobial, protease inhibition and anti-proliferation activities were tested for 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one. The antioxidant activities with IC50 for 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one was shown 44.5 µg/ml and IC50 for standard (Ascorbic acid) was shown as 24.5µg/ml. The 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one were shown good antifungal activities (9 to 12 mm) along with antibacterial activities (10 to 12 mm). The standard antibiotic like Tetracyclin shown zone of inhibition as 10 to 14mm for tested bacteria and for fungi standard as Fluconazole shown zone of inhibition from 13 to 16 mm. The protease inhibition studies for 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one of K. galanga have shown the good inhibition activity with enzymes like protease K and trypsin. The dose response of 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one from K. galanga on MCF-7 (Breast Cancer) cell line shown very less activity 130 µgm/ml when compared with the standard tamoxifen 12.5 µgm/ml. Hence the experimentations concluded that a phytocompound, 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one from ethanolic rhizome extract of K. galanga shown biological activities. Download
    • Investigation of Antiangiogenic Activity of Cassia Fistula Extract In Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane Model

      Plant which harbors curative elements or properties in one or more of its parts may be termed has medicinal plant. Plant based medicaments have been employed since the dawn of civilization for prolonging the life of man for combating against various body ailments. So medicinal plants like Cassia Fistula have their different pharmacological activities so they are cultivating in many places of India. Cassia fistula has been reported to have different pharmacological effects like Anti-inflammatory, Antifungal activity, Antibacterial Activity, Antihelminthic Activity along with these effects it also has Antiangiogenic effect. Which used in the treatment of cancer. The study was conducted to investigate the scientific basis for the traditional use of Cassia fistula by determining its Antiangiogenic effect in chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM assay). Cassia fistula was evaluated for antiangiogenic activity by chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM assay). Antiangiogenic effect was assessed using Cassia fistula induced hypotensive rat. Antiangiogenic effect was evaluated in hypotensive rat, in comparison to control group with the standard (salicylic acid) and test (Cassia fistula) group showed significant activity. Antiangiogenic activity was evaluated in CAM assay, in comparison to control group with the test group showed significant activity of less angiogenesis. From the present study it can be concluded that ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula shown Antiangiogenic activity. Download
    • Isolated Bacterial Pathogens In Urinary Tract Infection and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern In Hospital

      Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is commonest infections encountered in hospitals despite the widespread availability of antimicrobial agents UTI has become difficult to treat because of appearance of pathogens with Poly Antimicrobial antibiotics resistant bacteria which is emerging. Objectives: The aim and objectives of this study were to identify the prevalent etiological Bacterial pathogens of the UTI and to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of pathogens isolated. Methodology: The present study was a cross sectional study carried out in a Narayan Medical College and Hospital Jamuhar, Sasaram in department of microbiology. From December 2010 to march 2012. Total 258 urine samples were tested bacteriologically and for antibiotic susceptibility using standard procedures. Results: Out of 258 urine samples 142 (55%) patients tested positive for culture out of 142 samples 125 gram negative bacteria 17 gram positive bacteria isolated, most commonly associated bacteria isolated were E.coli (57.60% ) followed by and Klebsiella spp (16.90%) Enterobacter spp (7.04%),proteus(5.63%),pseudomonas sp (3.52%) citrobacter(2.81%)etc. amongst the gram negative bacilli .Amongst the gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (8.45 %) was commonest. E. coli which was the main isolate identified was found to be highly susceptible to Meropenem(80.78%) Amikacin (70.4%) followed by Ciprofloxacin (68.14%) norfloxacin (80.92%) and Nitrofurantoin (48.58%). Ceftriaxone (68.74%),ceftazidime(70.42%) etc. Download
    • Impact of a Physician - Clinical Pharmacist Collaborative Approach on Improving the Clinical Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

      Aims: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a clinical pharmacist-physician collaborative practice compared with usual care on improving outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 80 patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (HbA1c < 7%) at a teaching hospital in Yemen. Patients were randomly allocated into control and intervention group. The intervention group patients received pharmaceutical care interventions developed by the clinical pharmacist in collaboration with the physician while the control group patients received usual care without clinical pharmacist’s input. Results: After the nine months follow-up, there was statically significant in a mean reduction of HbA1c between groups of this study (2.8 % in the intervention group versus 1.8 % in the control; P = 0.009). In addition, the study findings showed that the most commonly identified drug related problems were the inappropriate knowledge about the time of drug administration (20.4 %). Conclusions: The results suggest the benefits of integrating clinical pharmacist services in multidisciplinary healthcare team of diabetes management. Download
    • Isolation and Evaluation of Mucilage from Linum Usitatissimum Seeds

      The aim of the current research work is to isolate the mucilage from Linum usitatissimum and test it for different phytochemicals, characteristic functional groups, pH, swelling index and viscosity. It was found that mucilage contains carbohydrates, polysaccharides, mucilage, gum and protein which are common composition of polymers obtained from the natural sources. Loss on drying, ash value, acid soluble ash, water soluble ash values are 5.2%, 6.3%, 5.78%, 4.98% respectively. pH of the extract is 7.1 and swelling index is 8.5, viscosity at different speed is found in the range of 20.65-40.7 centipoise. It can be concluded that isolated polymer is biocompatible, method of isolation is relatively simple and suitable for use as pharmaceutical excipient. Download
    • Influence of Tamarind Seed Gum and Chitosan on Sustained Release Tablets of Ropinirole Hydrochloride

      The objective of the present study was to develop the oral sustained release matrix tablets of Ropinirole HCl by using Tamarind seed gum in different Drug:Gum ratios (i.e.1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4) and comparative studies were carried out by taking any other natural gum in different Drug:Gum ratios (i.e.1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4). In this work other Gum choosen for comparison is Chitosan. Ropinirole HCl is used in treatment of idiopathic Parkinson disease and also in treatment of moderate to severe primary RLS. Its biological half life was found to be 6 hours. Sustained release formulations of Ropirinole HCl (6mg) were prepared by direct compression method. The tablets were subjected to physicochemical, in vitro drug release and stability studies. Optimization of the formulation was done by studying, effect of different drug:polymer ratio on drug release. FTIR studies indicated absence of any interaction between Ropinirole HCl and polymers. The Pre-compression and post compression parameters of all the formulations were found to be within the limits. In-vitro dissolution studies results elicited that by increasing Drug:Gum ratios, the drug release was found to be retarded and F4 formulation(Drug:TSG in 1:4) was found to be the optimized formulation with 99.32% CDR for a period of 12 hrs. Download
    • Influence of Tamarind Seed Gum and Carrageenan On Sustained Release Tablets of Ropinirole Hydrochloride

      The objective of the present study was to develop the oral sustained release matrix tablets of Ropinirole HCl by using Tamarind seed gum and carrageenan in different Drug:Gum ratios (i.e.1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4). Ropinirole HCl is used in treatment of idiopathic Parkinson disease and also in treatment of moderate to severe primary Restless leg syndrome(RLS). Its biological half life was found to be 6 hours. Sustained release formulations of Ropirinole HCl (6mg) were prepared by direct compression method and the tablets were subjected to physicochemical, in-vitro drug release and stability studies. FTIR studies indicated absence of any interaction between Ropinirole HCl and polymers used. The Pre-compression and post compression parameters of all the formulations were found to be within the limits. In-vitro dissolution studies results elicited that, by increasing Drug:Gum ratio, the drug release was found to be retarded and F4 formulation (Drug:TSG in 1:4) was found to be the optimized formulation with 99.32% CDR for a period of 12 hrs. The drug release data was fit well to the zero order. Korsmeyer’s plot indicated that the drug release mechanism from the matrix tablet followed Anomalous(non-Fickian) diffusion. Stability studies showed that no change in physical appearance, drug content or dissolution pattern of optimized formulation F4 after storage at 40°C temperature and relative humidity 75% RH for 90 days. Download
    • In vitro antitermite activity of alkaloids from Epipremnum aureum(Linden and Andre) Bunting (Araceae) against Indian white termite Odontotermes obesus

      Plants of Araceae family are well known sources of secondary metabolites with a wide range of biological activities, including antibacterial, antifungal, anticancerous, antioxidative, analgesic, and antipyretic properties, among others. In the present study laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate antitermite response of alkaloids isolated Epipremnum aureum(Linden and Andre) Bunting leaf, stem and root against Indian white termite Odontotermes obesus. Purified fractions of alkaloid showed remarkable toxicity against O. obesus at forty times dilution with respect to control. Soil sample with termites were collected from field and healthy termites were sorted out. Thirty active workers were released on each treated Whatman filter paper (90mm diameter) fitted inside glass petridishes. Mortality of termites was observed after fifteen minutes and compared with untreated filter papers. Highest mortality rate has been recorded with alkaloids isolated from leaves of E. aureum. Results of present study may be useful for development of herbal formulation for spot treatment in termite infested buildings, agriculture, furniture and to overcome synthetic termiticides borne problems. Download
    • Implication of Placebo Upshot in Biomedical Investigations: False Hope and Best Clinical Data

      Placebo is used as a substance, medicine and procedure that the physician believes has not known certain pharmacological action against the condition that being treated. If this produces an effect in patients resulting from its unquestioning or manifesting purpose and not from its specific physical and chemical properties. Placebos often take in the form of sugar pills, saline injections, miniscule doses of drug or sham procedures designed to be void any therapeutic value. In medical research placebo given as control treatment depend on the use of measured suggestion the based on false information. Some of physician believes that placebo can be produces an effect negative or positive based on patients psychological thinking. The ethical aspect of the use, act of placing patient in placebo group has been equated with the negligent withholding of treatment. This could be interpreting as a violation of beneficence. The use of placebo controls touch main of four ethical principles that are principle of autonomy, beneficence, paternalism is the special type of beneficence and nonmaleficence. Both the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki and Council of International Organization for Medical Sciences' International Ethical Guideline for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects have recently been revised in a way that seems to support wider use of placebo controls. Ultimately, deceptive use of placebos is not ethically acceptable because it may potential harm to patients to greater degree than it helps them. Biomedical Research and development of new drugs and implies an important investment of human and economic resources for conducting clinical trials designed to evaluate efficacy and safety of new medications. Knowledge of mechanisms of placebo effect and how the latter can influence the different efficacy variables in these research studies appears essential in order to optimize the available resource in application to development of new drugs. Download
    • Isothermal and Kinetic Study of the Adsorption of Tetracycline Hydrochloride and Sulphamethoxazole by Bottom Ash and Alkali treated Bottom Ash

      The two forms of Bottom Ash used for the adsorption of Tetracycline Hydrochloride and Sulphamethoxazole are Bottom Ash (BA) activated at 600 °C and activated (at 600 °C) Alkali treated Bottom Ash (ABA). Langmuir isotherm shows greater sorption capacity of ABA for Tetracycline Hydrochloride and Sulphamethoxazole than Bottom Ash. The thermodynamic parameters evaluated show that the adsorption of Tetracycline Hydrochloride on the two adsorbents is endothermic in nature whereas adsorption of Sulphamethoxazole shows exothermic nature. Dubinin Radushkevich isotherm was used to estimate sorption energy. Kinetic studies reveal that the processes in all the cases follow Ho Mckay’s pseudo second order reaction. The studies of mass transfer coefficient for Tetracycline Hydrochloride and Sulphamethoxazole adsorption over ABA was higher than BA which suggests that ion-exchange reaction occurs more on ABA. Download
    • Ion Chromatography with UV Detection as Sensitive Method for Bromate Determination in Bread

      Bromate is well known as a harmful inorganic disinfection by-product arising during water ozonation. Anyway, it is not the only source of that toxic compound for people. Another example is using a potassium bromate as an oxidant in flour doughs and in bakery industry. It is used as a flour improver that acts as a maturing agent. In the work a method with post-column Derivatization with triiodide and UV detection at 352 was is applied for the determination of bromate in selected breads, rolls, croissants and baguettes bought at Polish supermarkets. Method detection limit is on the level of 0.32 µg L-1, and spiked recovery for bromate was in the range of 96%-104%. The results of this study show that in most of analysed samples there is no bromate or the concentration is very low. Download
    • Immune Response In Tuberculosis An Overview

      Tuberclosis is one of the most infectious and ancient disease. it is caused by bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis, but very few people have risk of its reoccurrence round 5-10%.one third of the population is infected with this deadly disease and comes next to HIV. When active tuberculosis develops, disease localization, severity and outcome are highly variable. It may develop anywhere in the body but usually presents as pulmonary infection ,ranging from mild infection to chronic, cavitary and severely destructive disease. According to world health organization (WHO),TB is a worldwide pandemic. The different manifestation of infection with M.tuberclosis reflect the balance between the bacillus and host defence system. However one should be were that dissecting innate and acquired host responses are complementary and synergistic. Download
    • Isolation and Characterization of Anti Sickling Bioactive Compounds from Seeds of Picralima Nitida Stapf (Apocynaceae)

      Aim: To isolate and Characterize the anti-sickling bioactive compounds of Ethanol fraction of Picralima nitida seeds. Methods: The fresh matured fruits (8 kg) of P. nitida were cut into transverse section to expose the seeds, The seeds were air-dried and then pulverized into a homogenous powder, The organoleptic properties (taste, colour, odor, texture) of the powdered P. nitida were determined using the sensory organs. A 2.5 kg pulverized seeds were extracted with methanol and concentrated in a rotary evaporator to yield a dried residue. The methanol extract of Picralima nitida was then defatted using n-hexane. The extract was successively fractionated with different solvents, chloroform, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and 50% ethanol in increasing order of polarity to obtain the chloroform fraction (CF), dichloromethane fraction (DCMF), ethyl acetate fraction (EF) and ethanol fraction. Antisickling activity tests were carried out on all the fractions at the same time, comparing their antisickling activities with that of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (positive control). The Ethanol Fraction which has the greatest anti sickling activity was subjected to further fractionation using silica gel column chromatography. The fractions based on bioactivity-guide, were eluted with gradient mixtures followed by a preparative TLC using EtOAc:MeOH (2:3) as solvent system to get compounds 1 and 2.The structures of the isolated active compounds were elucidated using spectrophototropic analyses. Result: The two compounds were identified as (19∝)-16, 17-didehydro-19-methyl-oxayohimbin-16-Carboxylic acid methyl ester (Ajmalicine) and (19∝)-19-methyl-2-oxoformosanan-16-carboxylic acid methyl ester (Ajmalicine Oxindole B). Ajmalicine showed significant antisickling effect (97 %) when compared to the standard drug (50 %). Ajmalicine Oxindole B Showed (90 %) antisickling effect at concentration 2.5 mg/ mL at 90 minutes incubation in HbSS blood. Conclusion The seeds of Picralima nitida possesses antisickling effect and could serve as a lead to produce further antisickling drug. Download