• Evaluation of Plasma Lactate and Electrolytes In Type II Diabetes Mellitus

      Aim: To estimate sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) , bicarbonate (HCO3─) and lactate levels in arterial blood of diabetes mellitus type II patients. Material and Method: 90 non-alcoholic, non-smoker subjects above the age of 40 years were participated in the present study, subdivided in 3 groups. Group 1: 30 diabetic subjects above the age of 40 years suffering from diabetes mellitus type II as diagnosed by the physician and having random plasma glucose < 400 mg/dl. Group 2 : 30 diabetic subjects above the age of 40 years suffering from diabetes mellitus type II as diagnosed by the physician and having random plasma glucose ≥ 400 mg/dl. Control group : 30 non-diabetic age and sex matched subjects. Arterial blood samples were collected from radial artery in a heparinised syringe & processed immediately on blood gas analyzer GEM PREMIER 3000, using GEM PREMIER 3000 pak cartridge. Results: There was significant decrease in plasma sodium levels in diabetic patients compared to controls. Plasma potassium levels were significantly increased in diabetic patients than controls. Conclusion: Uncontrolled hyperglycemia (group 2 diabetics) is significantly associated with electrolyte imbalance and lactic acidosis in type II diabetes mellitus patients. It was concluded that electrolyte imbalance found in diabetics may have great potential as a diagnostic tool in clinical practice and have a significant effect upon controlling the risk of many diseases & complications. Download
    • Estimation of Gallic Acid in the Seed Extracts of Syzygium cumini

      The aim of this work was to estimate the amount of gallic acid present in raw seed powder, and in the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Syzygium cumini seed by using reverse phase High pressure liquid chromatography. The method was carried out on a Phenomenex kromosil C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5µ) using mobile phase of 2ml orthophosphoric acid in 1000ml water and methanol with a gradient elution at the flow rate of 1 ml/min, with the detection wavelength at 272 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration showed a good linear relationship with correlation co-efficient of 0.999. The developed method has been validated as per ICH guidelines and the method has the advantage of being both rapid and easy and hence it can be applied for routine quality control analysis of herbal preparations containing Syzygium cumini constituents Download
    • Extraction and Encapsulation of Beetroot (Beta Vulgaris.L) Extract Using Spray Dryer

      This study aims to obtain encapsulated beetroot extract in a powder form using spray drying technology. The beetroot extract, as core material was obtained using aqueous extraction method. The encapsulated beetroot extract powder was produced by spray drying process using the combination of maltodextrin and gum arabic as wall material in the ratio of 1:2 (core material : wall material), and drying inlet air temperatures at 120°C, 140°C and 160°C as independent parameters. Thus the effect on spray drying inlet air temperatures on encapsulation efficiency, moisture content and betanin content of encapsulated beetroot extract powder was evaluated. Download
    • Extracellular Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Actinomycetes and their Antibacterial Activity

      In the present study, isolate and identify the pigment producing actinomycetes, to identify the bioactive compounds and biologically synthesis silver nanoparticles against pathogenic bacteria. A total of seven actinomycetes were isolated from soil samples and tested against pathogenic bacteria. Out of seven isolates, three isolates [A1, A3 and A7] showed better result against pathogenic bacteria by primary screening. Out of three isolates, A1 and A7 were subjected to secondary screening, identification, growth study (temperature and pH), mass multiplication and synthesis of silver nanoparticles methods. The potential isolates was identified by morphological and biochemical tests (Streptomyces sp.). The optimum temperature as room temperature 28oC and favorable pH was 7. The cell free extract of potential isolate was assessed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed major peak at 420 nm. Synthesized nanoparticles also exhibited antibacterial activity against bacterial pathogens. Download
    • Effect of Recent Amendment in Drug & Cosmetic Act in India

      Globally, every country is the victim of substandard or spurious drugs, which result in life threatening issues, financial loss of consumer and manufacturer and loss in trust on health system. The aim of this enumerative review was to probe the extent on poor quality drugs with their consequences on public health and the preventive measures taken by the Indian pharmaceutical regulatory system. For minimizing spurious drugs or not of standard quality drugs, there is requirement of more strict regulation and legal action against the problem. However, India has taken some preventive steps in the country to fight against the poor quality drugs for protecting and promoting the public health. Download
    • Endometriosis –A New Age Disease

      Endometriosis is the biological complication that occurs when the lining of the uterus called endometrium grows outside the uterine cavity. It affects females in their reproductive years, and is an estrogen-dependent condition. In US about 5 million women have endometriosis with different symptoms. Endometriosis is known to occur when the lining of the uterus called the endometrium, grows in other places such as fallopian tubes, ovaries or along the pelvis .The major issues that limit the currently available endometriosis treatment are lack of awareness, delay in diagnosis, high cost, long-term treatment and recurrence. The impact includes fertility, sexuality and ability to work, play and personal relationships. Treatment for endometriosis involves pain medication, hormone therapy, surgery, or a combination of both. However to avoid recurrence hysterectomy or total removal of the uterus may be a 'last resort' option. Download
    • Evaluation of Diuretic Activity of Passiflora Nepalensis in Rats

      This study was conducted to investigate the diuretic potential of aqueous methanolic extract of Passiflora nepalensis in rats. The extract at doses of 10, 30 50 and 100 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally in acute diuretic model. Furosemide (10 mg/kg i.p) was used as standard drug. Total urine volume and urinary excretion of electrolytes were measured. Preliminary phytochemical tests were also performed using standard procedures. The extract exhibited a significant dose dependent diuretic effect at all the doses when compared to control group. Urinary excretion of sodium was significantly increased by the extract while a significant increase in potassium excretion was only observed at higher doses. Phytochemical analysis illustrated that the extract contained compounds such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars. It is conceivable therefore that the aqueous methanolic extract of P. nepalensis contain certain biologically active compounds that might be responsible for the diuretic activity. Download
    • Expression of IGF-2 Receptor In Salivary Gland Tumors and Its Correlation with Tumor Relapse

      Background: Pleomorphic Adenoma (PA) is one of the most common benign salivary gland neoplasms, whereas mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) are the most common malignant salivary gland tumors (SGT). The expression of insulin-like growth factor receptors (IGF-R) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of different neoplasms. Since there is a lack of sufficient data on the importance of IGF-R in the pathogenesis of SGTs, the present study aimed at evaluating the IGF-2R expression and its correlation with tumor relapse in three common SGT diseases. Methods: In a laboratory study, 44 paraffin-embedded specimens (15 in PA, 14 in MEC, and 15 in ACC groups) were studied. The samples were stained for IGF-2R using polyclonal antibody. The expression of IGF-2 receptor was studied by two pathologists, and the patients were observed for any evidence of relapse. Data analysis was done by SPSS 18, and p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Out of the 44 enrolled patients, 25 (56.8%) were male. The meanSD age was 38.813.72, 47.0714.95, and 51.2614.31 years in the PA, MEC, and ACC groups, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the positive cells for IGF-2R between the three groups, whereas the difference for staining intensity and calculated scale was found to be statistically significant (p=0.02, p=0.04, respectively). Tumor relapse was reported to be higher in ACC compared to the MEC and PA groups (p<0.01). The relationship among staining intensity, calculated scale, and the tumor relapse was statistically remarkable (p=0.02). Conclusion: The results of the present study concluded that the relapse rate of tumors is related to IGF-2R expression in tumor cells. The relapse rate was higher and the expression of IGF-2R was lower in ACC when compared to the PA and MEC types of SGTs. Download
    • Evaluation of Sustainability of An Outreach Dental Centre: A Refined Break Even Analysis

      Introduction – Outreach centres provide dental services at subsidised rates in urban and rural areas but sustainability of these centres remains a question. Methodology- Functional Outreach rural centre of a private institution providing oral health care services was selected for the study. Retrospective fiscal data was collected for past financial year. Cost analysis was done using a contribution method. Results- Break even existed with some amount generated as a marginal benefit. Conclusion – Unit was found to be self-sustainable and generated some extra income which would help in the revision of the policy regarding the patients being treated for free in the outreach rural centre. Download
    • Evaluation of Antiproliferative and Antifungal Properties of a Serine Protease Inhibitor in Some Cucurbitaceae Members: A Review

      Plants produce complecx set of biological components that acts as active principles. A complete study of protein components provides an understanding about the complex network and the changes of functions within a system. The plant system contains both useful and harmful sources that can act as medicinal sources. The plant proteins are using from the ancient times but the principle understanding about these sources are arised from the modern times. The plant seed and testa in some Cucurbitaceae members as the medicinal sources in the form of protease inhibitors has been provided in the present study. The plant proteins isolated from seed coat is having good antiproliferative and antifungal properties. As the seeds containing testa is using as the edible sources, there is multiple interlinks in the control of various metabolic diseases like cancer. The protease inhibitors are also having good antifungal properties. Download
    • Evaluating the Efficacy of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Linn Mucilage as Tablet Binder in the Formulation of Orodispersible Tablets of Perindopril Erbumine

      The aim of the current study is to formulate oro-dispersible tablets of Perindopril Erbumine using a natural binder which was extracted from Hibiscus rosasinensis linn. The leaves of this plant yield mucilage which was used as binder and was extracted using acetone. Perindopril Erbumine an ACE inhibitor was used as a model drug for this study. Perindopril Erbumine is used as an anti-hypertensive agent. It was observed from the evaluations that the batch F1 showed the best disintegration time and also completes drug release within five minutes. Hence it was concluded that orally disintegrating tablets of Perindopril Erbumine can be successfully formulated using mucilage extracted from Hibiscus rosasinensis linn as a tablet binder. Download
    • Estimation Herb/Spice/Vegetables Trace Elements: North-West-Regional State(s) of Haryana (India)

      A number of elements (bio-active traces from Herbs/Spices/Vegetables) can to improve the taste of foods as well as influence digestion (with metabolism processes and also contains an integer residues of undesirable components (myco-toxins/pesticides/heavy metals/poly-cyclic carbohydrates that can be harmful). The metals (i.e. Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) contents in (North-West region of Haryana States) mainly trendy spices/vegetables levels were estimated by atomic absorption (AAS; assayed) method. Moreover, the resulted data of metals (Zn and Cu) levels were found with-in limits to be safe (excluding Mn and Fe metals data demonstrated the higher concentration in spices/vegetables can be considered as toxic for human) by comparison with safety standards of National Ministry of Health (NMH). Download
    • Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants Used In the Treatment of Skin Diseases in Abeokuta South Local Government of Ogun State Nigeria

      The ethnobotanical survey of the plants used traditionally for treating skin diseases was conducted in Abeokuta South Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The administration of semi-structured questionnaire and oral interviews methods were employed. Herb sellers, Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMPs), aged people and local farmers were the targeted audience. Plant specimens were collected and identified at the Forestry herbarium, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta. A total of 80 plants species belonging to 42 families were found to be useful in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema, pimples, boils, rashes, measles, small pox, wounds and chicken pox. The family Fabaceae provided the largest number of plant species (Thirteen) followed by Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae, Compositae, and Moraceae with (six, four, three, three plants species respectively). Examples of some plants in these families are: Rauvolfia vomitoria, Vernonia amygdalina, Senna alata, Argemone mexicana which were found to be very important in the recipes based on their frequency of occurrence in the herbal preparation. The main methods of preparation of these herbal recipes were decoction and infusion. Leaves formed the major plant part used (76.3%) followed by stem (11.3%). The survey revealed that residents of this area view herbal treatment as more effective and cheaper compared to orthodox medicine. The medicinal plants used by the people in this area form a rich source of indigenous knowledge which can play a role for therapeutic purposes. Download
    • Ethno-religious significance of sacred plants of District Kishtwar (J&K)

      Present study deals with the compilation, analysis and documentation of information on the sacred plants of District Kishtwar (J&K). A total of 56 species belonging to 55 genera and 31 families have been recorded. These species are distributed within different life forms viz. herbs (73.2%), shrubs (10.7%) trees (12.5%) and climbers (3.6%). Angiosperms is the dominant group with maximum number of sacred plants, while, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms are represented by one species each. The sacred plants and parts of plants utilized thereof are categorized on the basis of their socio-cultural perspective. Traditionally various parts of plants such as leaves (12 spp.), stem/branches (2 spp.), flowers (6 spp.), seeds/grains (16 spp.), fruits (8 spp.), bark (1 sp.), roots/rhizome (2spp.), stigma (1 sp.) and whole plants (10 spp.), are used in different religious ceremonies and social rites. Apart from sacred value, the study also contributed to the ethnomedicinal uses of such plants in the study area. There is a myth related to the sacred plants, if a plant is used for pooja, the same plant can be used as elixir of health. Sacred plants being integral part of biodiversity need proper attention in terms of conservation and sustainable utilization for the present and future use. So, the development of an appropriate strategy for conservation and sustainable utilization of sacred plants is suggested. Download
    • Evaluation of Anti Leishmanial Activities of Withania Somnifera and Solanum Nigrum A Preliminary Study

      This work deals with the study of anti leishmanial activities of plant abstracts that have been evaluated for possible anti leishmanial activities using MTT Assay. In vitro inhibition was observed with chloroform growth and a similar inhibition was obtained with aqueous extract of s.nigrum and all other extracts exhibiting significant toxicity. Promastigotes of L. donovani strain AG83 were routinely cultured at 24OC in M199 medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, 100 U penicillin/ml and 100 µg streptomycin/ml. The IC50 of Pentamidine was found to be 38g/ml while that for w.somnifera and s.nigrum found to be 50g/ml and 58g/ml respectively. This paper records one of the effective measures of cure of the deadly disease by medicinal plants solanum nigrum and withania somnifera against the recent drug pentamidine . Download
    • Evaluation Determination of Lack Dose Calculation in Geriatric Patient in Different Hospital Of Karachi

      The aim of our study are to quantify those prescription of geriatrics patients in which dose calculation not done on the basis of their body weight ,BMI, age and specially on the basis of their serum creatinin levels so patient becomes more and more malfunction kidney which may leads to other several multiple organ damage and diseases. A research is carried out in Number of individuals who were from different families and different diseases chronic and acute disease admitted in different private and government sectors in various indications . The total 100 individuals male and female both between age group 40-85 yrs .are selected ,the data is collected and statistical calculation shows that there are number of individuals who are using renally excreted drugs without dose calculation, prescribed by doctor, taking self medication or by the advice of store keeper. Some of patients have faced harmful effects and stop taking these medicines.100 patient were evaluated median age ranges (40-85) .our result is concluded that almost all the patients prescription was not calculated and all drugs gives in adult normal doses which may leads to further decline in renal functions and ultimately renal failure and death. The conclusion reveal that there is the most private and government institution sectors , physicians & doctors are not following the prescribing roles to prescribe the prescriptions for patients .due to lack of awareness of prescribing role in prescription or it may can say that lack of interest , leads to highly risk of chronic renal failure in geriatrics. Download
    • Evaluation of the Effects of a Single Bolus of Erythropoietin on Reducing the Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery; A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Control Study

      Introduction: Atrial Fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia developing after coronary artery bypass surgery. Many studies have been done to reduce the incidence of post CABG AF. In our recent study we used Indocid and showed that it can reduce the incidence of AF by reducing the inflammatory reactions. In this study we want to understand if we can reduce the incidence of post CABG AF with reducing the ischemia during the cross-clamp time in CABG by a single bolus of Erythropoietin. Material and methods: 43 patients that were referred to Mazandaran Heart Center (Sari, Iran) for elective CABG between September 2010 and October 2011 were included in this study and randomly divided into two groups :Erythropoietin group and control group. Patients in Erythropoietin group were treated by common medical therapies and CABG plus 700 IU/kg Erythropoietin (PD Poietin, puyeshdaroo, Iran), intravenously infusion, exactly 5 min after termination of cross clamp: at the start of reperfusion and patients in control group were treated by common medical therapies and CABG surgery plus 10cc normal saline as placebo. Results: There was no significant differences between two control and EPO group according to their age, sex ,involved vessels ,number of grafts, cross-clamp and pump time. There was statistically lower incidence of post CABG AF in EPO group. Discussion: Showing that the incidence of post CABG AF has been reduced by decreasing the cross-clamp time and therefore the ischemia during surgery in our previous study, we planned this study to find that a single bolus of Erythropoietin used in CABG can reduce the incidence of post CABG AF by reducing the ischemia occurred by post perfusion injury Download
    • Evaluation of Etiology and Causes of Massive Pericardial Effusion in Patients with Tamponade, in Mazandaran Heart Center and Shafa Hospital, Sari, Iran

      Background: Pericardial effusion is diagnosed as an echo-free space around the heart. This fluid collection follows the anatomic landmarks of the pericardium, covering both ventricles and most of the right atrium, whereas a small portion of the LA wall is surrounded by pericardium. Pericardial effusion should be differentiated from left pleural effusion, an echo free space that extends posterior to the descending aorta, and from increased pericardial fat content, of typical granular appearance, that does not deserve medical attention. Aim: Aim of this issue is to find the presentation by which the patients have come to the hospital that at last the diagnosis was massive pericardial effusion and finding the laboratory and pathologic causes of this clinical problem. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the patients who had been admitted in Mazandaran Heart Center and Shafa hospital between Sept 2009 and Jan 2013 with diagnosis of pericardial effusion which were made by echocardiography. Results: Among these patients there was a history of viral infection including cough, fever, weakness in previous month in 32 (37%) patients and a history of diagnosed malignancy in 15 patients (1%7) who at least had a course of chemotherapy in their drug history and history of trauma in one patient, there was history of chronic renal failure and repeated dialysis in 12(14%) but there was no previous disease in the other patients (36%). There was a history of previous surgery for tamponade in 3 of them (3%).After admission the diagnosis of massive pericardial effusion had been made and in 48 (55%) of them, there was echocardiographic signs of RA collapse and RV collapse. Discussion: Most pericardial effusions are caused by inflammation of the pericardium, a condition called pericarditis. As the pericardium becomes inflamed, extra fluid is produced, leading to a pericardial effusion. Viral infections are one of the main causes of pericarditis and pericardial effusions. in laboratory and pathologic findings of specimen obtained from pericardial fluid and biopsy specimen there was nothing specific to show the exact cause of effusion. Download