• An Insight on the Emerging Regulations for Radiopharmaceuticals by Europe and India

      Radiopharmaceuticals are the radioactive substances or radioactive drugs for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. The formulation of radiopharmaceuticals is different from ordinary pharmaceuticals. Many radiopharmaceuticals are released and administered to patients shortly after their production because radiopharmaceuticals may decompose during process and labeling steps due to variation in environmental conditions, indicating serious stability concerns. So, administrative prerequisites must be taken for the formulation of the radiopharmaceuticals. Radiopharmaceuticals production, unlike conventional pharmaceuticals production, is still raw and processing at a full fledged speed. Hence, implementing the cGMP guidelines which are applicable for the drugs industry is both difficult and expensive. The present article introduces radiopharmaceuticals in an effective and useful way. Herein, the radiopharmaceuticals are described as a trustworthy aid for curing the life threatening diseases. It demonstrates a brief investigation of the guidelines constituted by the regulatory bodies for the radiopharmaceuticals. It emphasizes on understanding the mandatory regulations to be taken for the radiopharmaceuticals in various countries. It includes the regulations framed for radiopharmaceuticals by Europe and India. The present work provides information on the guidelines used by Europe and India for the regulation of radiopharmaceuticals by the special committees. The regulations in Europe are stringent whereas, in several countries, like India, the regulations are still to get illumination. It withholds the names of the guidelines in the world to be alluded for the radiopharmaceuticals and the regulatory bodies responsible for the regulation. Download
    • Antimicrobial Activity of Citrus Fruit Pulp, Whole Citrus Fruit Juice and Silver Nano Particles Synthesized Using Citrus Fruit Pulp

      Citrus fruits are suggested as antimicrobial agents from ancient times. Several microorganism derived antibiotics currently in use to treat a variety of human diseases, but the problem of antibiotic resistance is upcoming rapidly due to various factors. The demand for novel antimicrobial agents from natural resources has been increased worldwide. The present study was carried out to find the antimicrobial activity of pulp juice, whole fruit juice & the combination of citrus fruits (lemon, orange, sweet lime). Antibacterial analysis showed that lemon juice was highly active against all the tested organisms, whereas the orange and sweet lime showed very less & no activity respectively. The combinations of the three citrus juices were active against all the tested organisms but the Gram positive bacteria were more sensitive than Gram negative. The lemon pulp juice also showed a high antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Furthermore, Nanoparticles with antimicrobial property, biosynthesized using different sources are of significance in therapeutic applications of nanotechnology. We also synthesized Silver Nano particles were from fruit pulp juices. It was found that the antibacterial activity of lemon was enhanced whereas orange and sweet lime silver Nano particles were also active against all test organisms. Download
    • A Review On Chromatographic and Spectrophotometric Methods for Estimation of Dapagliflozin and Glimepiride In Bulk and In Different Dosage Forms

      Dapagliflozin and Glimepiride are very effectively used as type II diabetes. They very potent inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and inhibiting sodium glucose transport protein 2 and its called SGLT2 inhibitors. They used to enhance glycemic control as well as reduce body weight and systolic & diastolic blood pressure. They are generally administered as tablets. This review entails different methods developed for determination of the Dapagliflozin and Glimepiride like UV-spectroscopy and liquid chromatography. Download
    • Aripiprazole and Clozapine: A Review of Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Method

      Aripiprazole and Clozapine are classified as an Atypical Antipsychotics. Aripiprazole primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Clozapine works by changing the actions of chemicals in the brain. It is used to treat severe schizophrenia, or to reduce the risk of suicidal behavior in people with schizophrenia or similar disorders. It is also used in Parkinson’s disease. The clinical and pharmaceutical analysis of these drugs requires effective analytical procedures for quality control and pharmacodyna44mic and pharmacokinetic studies as well as stability study. There are many analytical methods reported so far in the literature for the determination of Aripiprazole and Clozapine in Biological samples and pharmaceutical formulations. This article comprises reviews of analytical methods like Spectrophotometric methods, chromatographic methods. Download
    • Alteration of Acetylcholinesterase Mediatory Cognitive Behavioral Pattern through Phytomedicine (MEC-01) in Wistar Rats

      MEC-01 is a phytomedicine composed with C. pluricaulis, B. monnieri, C. asiatica, A. racemosus, N. jatamansi and Withania somnifera. The aim of the present study was to find out underlying mechanism of MEC-01 on cognitive behavioral pattern in experimental animals. The total phenolics content, DPPH radical scavenging, brain lipid peroxidation and acetylcholine esterase in inhibitory actions of MEC-01 was studied in in vitro methods. Cognitive functions were assessed by passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests in normal and scopolamine induced memory impaired mice. The findings revealed that MEC-01 has enriched in phenolic compounds, inhibited free radicals scavenge, exerted protective actions against brain lipid peroxidation and inhibited central acetylcholine esterase enzyme activity. MEC has no lethality up to the oral single dose of 2000 mg/kg in mice. Moreover, MEC-01 exhibited improvement in retention of learning in normal and cognitive deficit animals. The results indicate MEC-01 can facilitate learning and memory and possesses significant antidementic properties that may be mediated via acetylcholine esterase attenuating neuronal functions. Download
    • A Review On Analytical Methods For Determination of Losartan Potassium And Pioglitazone In Different Dosage Form

      Nowadays antihypertensive drugs like Losartan Potassium and Antidiabetic drugs like Pioglitazone represent the first choice in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Losartan Potassium reduced the degree of proteinuria while Pioglitazone act as efficient insulin sensitizers. Generally the Combination of Losartan Potassium and Pioglitazone are used for patients suffering from the diabetes mellitus which leads to end stage renal disease. This article narrates different chromatographic (HPLC, HPTLC, LC) & different Spectrophotometric method (UV) for Statin class single drug as well as combination with other drug. Thus, this paper will help in the selection and development of proper analytical methodologies for estimation of Losartan Potassium and Pioglitazone to achieve satisfactory results. Download
    • A Review on Saptrangi (Salacia oblonga Wall): A Medicinal Herb

      Salacia oblonga Wall, a native shrub also known as Saptrangi and Ponkoranti, belongs to the family Celastraceae, is distributed across the world. A large number of chemical constituents such as salacinol, kotalanol, neokotalanol, neosalacinol, and mangiferin are isolated from S. oblonga which show various pharmacological activities. Salacia oblonga Wall is being used in several herbal preparations for treating diabetes and obesity. It possess anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, antiperoxidative, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, nephroprotective and antimutagenic activities. This review focuses on the potential of Salacia oblonga wall in various human diseases and can be used as a promising herbal drug, for the benefit of mankind. Download
    • Analytical Quality by Design (QbD) Approach to RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation of Meloxicam

      Quality by Design (QbD) refers to a holistic approach towards drug development. Meloxicam is a Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) which acts by inhibition of prostaglandin synthetase (cyclooxygenase 1 and 2) leading to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, thereby exerts anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effects. Though, various analytical methods have been reported, but they are tedious, difficult to reproduce and time consuming. So there is need to develop a novel RP-HPLC method to overcome this problem. A simple, fast and robust HPLC analytical method was developed by employing experimental design. In experimental design, Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to study the significance of the method critical factors such as % composition of mobile phase, flow rate and wavelength on the response (asymmetric factor) was tested. The Reverse Phase (RP) HPLC method was successfully developed and validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, LOD, LOQ. The polynomial regression data for the calibration plots exhibited linear relationship (r2 = 0.999) over a concentration range of 25–125µg/ml and the linear regression equation was y = 41905x – 53177. The % coefficient of variation for both intra-day and inter-day precision was less than 2%. The good recoveries of MLX were obtained as more than 99%. The proposed method has proven that method is accurate, precise, reproducible and suitable for regulatory flexibility. Download
    • A Review On 3d Printed Tablets : A Downloadable Medicine

      3Dimensional (3D)-printing is a rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing is a recent innovative technology that manufacture 3D shapes in a layer by layer method directly by computer aided drug design technology. Computer aided drug design(CADD) is an emerging tool for research and drug development process as it reduce the time taken for the process of drug development and expense. In 3D printing successive layers of material are formed under computer control to create an object. It is having high degree of flexibility over controls over the release of drug which is formulated as in different layers of tablets. 3D printing has an exclusive opportunity for the preparation of personalized medication to patient needs. This review deals with the scope of the 3D printing technology, various methods of preparation and regulatory problems with 3D printing pharmaceuticals. Download
    • A Review on Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana): A Medicinal Plant

      Plants are one of the most important source of medicine. Stevia is perennial herb that belongs to Astaraceae family. It is natural sweetener plant & is 300 times sweeter than cane sugar. It is native to Paraguay & Brazil. It is also called as the sweet herb of paraguay. The major constitutes identified were the steviol glycosides. Its nutritional value benefits both the young & old ones. Stevia is belived to have antiglycemic antiseptic antibacterial, antimicrobial, anticancer activity & also be used in stomach upset, indigesion, weight loss, heart burn, etc. It is expected that it will generate hope for diabetic people who have craze to eat sweet. Download
    • A Study On Risk Factors And Clinical Presentations Of Ectopic Pregnancy In Women Attending A Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

      Background: Ectopic pregnancy is one of the nightmare and a life threatening condition. The rising incidence of ectopic pregnancy in the past few years is due to a number of risk factors which include pelvic inflammatory disease & availability of better diagnostic techniques. There is increased frequency of ectopic after IVF and related techniques. Tubal pregnancy may be due to factors that retard the passage of fertilized ovum, conditions which increase tubal receptivity and factors intrinsic in the conceptus. Aim: The present study was designed to study the risk factors and clinical prentations of ectopic pregnancy attending to a tertiary care centre. Materials and methods: It was a prospective study on 50 cases of ectopic pregnancy conducted in department of obstetrics and gynaecology, RIMS Medical college and general hospital KADAPA, for a period of 2 years were included. Detailed history suggestive of risk factors for ectopic pregnancy, menstrual and obstetric history was taken. general, systemic, abdominal and vaginal examinations were done. Results and Discussion: A total of 12132 deliveries were confirmed during the study period, of which 50 cases of ectopic pregnancies were diagnosed, giving an incidence of o.41%. 74% were in the age group of 21- 30 years. 90% of women were multigravidae and 10% were primigravidae. 64% of the patients had identifiable risk factors, of which past history of PID in 32%, history of previous abortion in 12%, infertility in 10%, history of previous ectopic pregnancy in 4%, usage of IUCD and OCP in 4% each and tubectomy in 10% were noted. 98% had amenorrhea, followed by pain abdomen in 100%, bleeding PV in 82%, fainting and syncopal attack in 6%% of the patients. Pallor in 90%% of the cases, 6% presented with shock was noted. Percentage of haemoglobin was <7 gms in 68% .ectopic pregnancy presents as ruptured ectopic in 48 cases, and unruptured in 2 cases. Conclusion: Increasing awareness among sexually active women and men regarding safe sexual practices and contraception decrease abortions and reduces the risk of ectopic pregnancy. All high risk women should be screened at the earliest with serum B-hCG and TVS. The impact on future fertility can be improved by focusing on primary prevention and early diagnosis before rupture. Download
    • A Prospective Study on Identification of Actual and Potential Drug Related Problems in Geriatric Patients: The Role of the Clinical Pharmacist

      Drug related problems can be defined as the drug therapy that potentially or actually interferes with desired health outcomes. Drug related problems are common among elderly (Geriatric) patients using multiple drugs for the treatment of chronic disease. The fact that elderly patients take more medication for the treatment of several diseases makes them more vulnerable to the occurrence of many drug related problems and also due to the physiological changes that occurs with advancing age. Drug related problems can originate when prescribing, dispensing or taking/administering drugs. Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic rise in the number of elderly people in the developed and as well as developing countries although the disability rates among the elderly population were declining in the developed countries but increasing in the developing countries due to limited pharmaceutical care. The increase in the life expectancy has posed one of the toughest challenges to be met by the health care professionals and by the society. As life expectancy increases, there is a need to improve the health, quality of life, discovery of new treatments, prevention strategies, improving health behaviour and medication use. In this study, drug related problems in elderly patients are being studied and pharmacist interventions are being made for better therapeutic efficacy and improved quality of life. The main aim of the study was to analyse the usage of drugs among geriatric patients and the Drug related problems associated with it. This study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital. The result of the study shows, males (62.8%) were more affected by chronic disease than females (36%). The most common drug related problem was found to be Drug interaction, Drug duplication and followed by the long duration of drugs. Patient counseling being the cause of many drug related problems were able to be rectified and also imposing to the patient the importance of compliance better therapeutic care was provided. Our study concludes that pharmacist intervention can reduce drug related problems and thereby providing better pharmaceutical care. Download
    • A Review on Whole Blood Pyrogen Assay

      The whole blood pyrogen test was first described in journal exactly twenty years ago.it employs the cytokine response of blood monocytes for the detection of microbiological contaminates with the potential to finally replace the still broadly used rabbit test. Its measure the fever reaction following injection of the sample to the animals. LAL which is measure the coagulation in a lysate prepared from blood of the horseshoe crab specifically initiated by endotoxins. Pyrogen detection is important in pharmaceutical industry, laboratories and health care institution. As an alternative to the animal consuming rabbit pyrogen test or limulus amoebocytes lysate test, the monocyte activation test was introduced as a gold standard method in European pharmacopoeia. The monocyte activation test has not gained wide acceptance in practice. We stimulate bovine whole blood with different endotoxin preparation (lipopolysaccharide E. coli) as well as the non-endotoxin pyrogen peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) served as read out. The test is the first solution enabling adequate pyrogen testing of cell therapies, including blood transfusion, and medical device. As the test can quantitatively assess human relevant airborne pyrogens, the contribution of pyrogens to chronic obstructive lung diseases and childhood asthma can for the first time be defined and home and work place safety improved in the future. Download
    • A Short Review on the Anti-Cancer Activities of Natural Polyphenols

      Cancer continues worldwide disease taking the life of individuals irrespective of their age. There are various types of cancer detected by the doctors worldwide. Cancer is a group of diseases caused by loss of cell cycle control. Cancer is associated with abnormal uncontrolled cell growth. The cause of cancer can be external and internal. It can affect any organs of the human being. Plant derived polyphenols plays a vital role in protecting humans from cancerous diseases. Polyphenols play a major role as a powerful natural anti oxidant which can protect the cells. The review focuses on the role of natural polyphenols as an anti cancer agent. Download
    • Antimicrobial Activity of Aloe Vera Formulation

      With the increasing incidence of diseases and development of antibiotic resistance, the alternative, safe, effective, and economical products are the need of time. Proven in multiple clinical studies, Aloe vera has been used in antimicrobial activity and used in mouth ulcers, periodontal diseases etc. In this present study Mucoadhesive film was prepared to study antimicrobial activity, to improve therapeutic efficacy by its adhesive action. The present study discusses the estimation of the antimicrobial activity of Aloe vera loaded mucoadhesive films. The formulation was studied for percent inhibition of microorganism of inflammed tissue, Calculas, and cultures of S.oralis, C.albicans, S.mutans. The formulation showed Percent inhibition of Candida albicans more when compared with standard Chlorhexidine. The film prepared is economic, convenient and shows the antimicrobial activity. Download
    • A Comparative Study of Marketing Conditions and Labelling Requirements for Homeopathic Drug in US, Europe and India

      India is the country which exporting the homeopathic drug product to the foreign countries like USA, Germany and United Kingdom. 90-95% of homeopathic products are exported to Germany from India. Since 1992-93, Indian Homeopathic product is increasing for USA. India also exports to the developing countries like Russia Ukraine and Sri lanka. For Sri lanka export is increasing since 1992-93. The OTC homeopathic drug products in US the established annual sales are around $ 75 million and exploring up to 15-20% annually. The Federal, Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act standardize as official drugs and its standard in Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of United State (HPUS) and its supplements. According to article 1of Directive 92/73/EC of homeopathic medicinal product means any medicinal product formulated products or substances or composition known as homeopathic stocks according to homeopathic manufacturing process stated in European pharmacopoeia or in absence pharmacopoeia available and currently used in official member states. Central Council for Research in Homeopathy (CCRH) was built up as an independent association in 1978, under the Dept. of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and Govt. of India. The National Institute of Homeopathy (NIH) in Kolkata as a self-governing association under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Download
    • A Review: Synthesis And Docking Study of Biologically Active Esters

      From many years chemists have been taking interests in synthesizing different kinds of ester derivatives due to their increasing medicinal importance. Lots of newer ester derivatives have different biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tuberculosis, antimicrobial, antifungal etc. Chemists have prepared different bioactive ester drugs by using various methods and also carried out molecular modeling in silico of ester drug candidates with proteins (receptor) to predict bonding interactions of ester drugs with proteins responsible for that particular disease using computational methods. By finding all the results from docking one can predict the biological activities of the compounds under the study. Download
    • Analgesic Efficacy of Morphine Versus Concurrent Use of Ketorolac and Acetaminophen In Mandibular Bone Surgery

      Background: Pain, a major issue in medical treatment, is one of the major concerns for both the clinician and the patient. Postoperative acute pain management during the initial hours is very important and can prevent side effects. Analgesics (acetaminophen, opioids) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used as medications for pain control. Objective: This study was performed to compare the analgesic efficacy of morphine versus the concurrent use of ketorolac and intravenous acetaminophen after mandibular bone surgery. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, single-centered, randomized, double-blind clinical trial study, a total of 60 patients referred to Imam Reza Hospital in 2015 for mandibular bone surgery were randomized post-surgery into two groups: In group 1, acetaminophen (1 g in 100 cc normal saline solution) and ketorolac (30 mg in 100 cc normal saline solution) were infused every 6 hours. In group 2, morphine sulfate (0.1 mg/kg in 100 cc normal saline solution) was infused every 4 hours. The pain level was recorded on the visual analogue scale (VAS) at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery. Results: Significant differences were found between the two groups in most hours. The mean pain level according to the VAS in group 1 and group 2 were 6.87±2.43 vs.7.20±2.06 (p = 0.560) for the 1st hour post operation, 5.80±2.76 vs. 4.03±2.25 (p = 0.008) for the 2nd hour post operation, 5.03±3.01 vs. 3.10±2.11 (p = 0.005) for the 4th hour post operation, 3.37±3.03 vs. 1.77±1.92 (p = 0.017) for the 6th hour post operation, 2.10±2.44 vs. 0.73±1.28 (p = 0.008) for the 12th hour post operation and 1.30±1.91 vs. 0.60±1.28 (p = 0.101) for the 24th hour post operation. No significant difference was observed in the 1st and 24th hour post-operation. Nausea was seen in the groups as one of the side effects with no significant difference. Conclusion: Morphine showed better efficiency in pain control than the concurrent use of ketorolac and intravenous acetaminophen. Download
    • A Study on The Nitric Oxide (NO) Enhancing Ability of A Natural Phytochemical Formulation

      Nitric oxide (NO) has basically dual action in biological systems. Nitric oxide (NO) has basically dual action in biological systems. Nitric oxide plays a crucial role in the vasodilation process. As a result of the vasodilation, the blood flow to the body tissues will be increased, there by influencing the biological actions of the human body. There are many naturally derived phytochemicals which are helpful in the synthesis of nitric oxide. This study report explains the Nitric oxide stimulation activity of a combination of naturally derived phytochemicals. Download
    • Antiparkinsonian Drug Utilization Pattern and ADR Monitoring In a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital: A Hospital Based Observational Study

      Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder represented by tetrad of symptoms such as bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity and gait disturbances. It results from the degeneration of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra in midbrain. This study was done to determine the prescribing pattern of antiparkinsonian drugs and associated adverse drug reactions in patients. Materials & methods: Data was collected from the case sheets in retrospective manner from Department of neurology of IMS & SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar, India. The demographic profile, disease duration, symptoms, categories of drug, adverse drug reaction if any were noted and analyzed. Results: Male predominance was seen. A majority of patients were between 51 and 80 years and most of the patients had onset of disease between 51 and 80 years. The common presenting symptoms were rigidity, tremor and bradykinesia. The commonest category of drug prescribed was levodopa either as monotherapy or in combination with other agents. Levodopa induced dyskinesia was the most common adverse drug reaction. The number of adverse drug reactions was significantly higher among patients receiving combination therapy. Conclusion: This study enlightens our knowledge regarding the utilization profile of antiparkinsonian drugs and related adverse drug reactions. Download
    • Association Between Tooth Brushing Behaviours And Dental Abrasions Among Residents of A Tribal District in Himachal Pradesh – A Cross Sectional Study

      Aim: To determine an association between tooth brushing behaviours and dental abrasions among residents of a tribal district in Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 550 adults (350 male and 200 female) aged 20 years and above who attended the Regional hospital at Reckongpeo in Tribal district of Kinnaur in the state of Himachal Pradesh. Study format comprises of patient demographic details and information on brushing behaviours. “P" value ≤0.05 was taken as statistically significant whereas ≤ 0.01 was considered as statistically highly significant. Results: In this study statistically significant relationship was observed between abrasive lesions and majority of the factors related to the tooth brushing behaviours. Statistically significant difference was found between abrasions and age wise and gender wise comparison, tooth brushing frequency, changing habits of toothbrushes on fraying of toothbrush bristles. Whereas the association between prevailing dental abrasions and technique and strokes used during tooth brushing was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Keeping in mind an association and impact of brushing behaviour and abrasions dental professionals should make evidence-based recommendations to their patients and general masses. There is a need of demonstration of proper tooth brushing techniques to this group of population and education to modify their brushing behaviours for a sound dental health. Download
    • A Review on King of Bitters: Andrographis paniculata

      Kalmegh, The King of Bitter is traditionally used plants in ayurvedic system of medicine.Its biological name is Andrographis paniculata (Nees) belonging to the family Acanthaceae. From the beginning, it has been used in ayurveda as anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Antidaibetic, Antispasmodic, anti-carcinogenic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, hepatoprotective, nematocidal, anti-HIV and in many infectious diseases rangning from malaria to dysentery. Medicinal value of this plan is due to the presence a diterpenoid derivative Angrapholide and Neoandrographolide.Traditionally, its decoction has been used as hepatoprotective in treatment of jaundice.The roots of the plant was used to prepare decoction and thus the chemical acting as hepatoprotective must be present in roots of the plant. Download
    • Ayurveda Medicinal Plants for Treatment of Diabetes in Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur Region - A Review

      Diabetes is a chronic disease which is affecting worldwide rapidly and number of people affected increasing gradually. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where a person has excessive rise in blood glucose level because it may be due to the cells which do not respond to insulin that is produced in the body or body does not produce required insulin so that prevents body to utilise glucose. As diabetes cannot be cured completely with allopathic medicines hence ayurvedic medicinal plants are commonly used for treatment of diabetes which does not have any side effects. There are several plants used for treatment of diabetes, these are nearly about 800 plants that are having medicinal value and show Anti-Diabetic potential. The lists of common medicinal plants which are used in the treatment of diabetes are as follows: Azadirachta indica, Ficus religiosa, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, Aloevera, Trigonella Foenum-graecum, Cinamomum cassia and Camellia sinesis. The present article gives detailed information about the various medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes which will also help in future studies. Download
    • Assessment of Gastric Amyloidosis in Patient with Abdominal Distension using Endoscopic Ultrasound

      Amyloidosis is a rare disease caused by extracellular deposits of insoluble fibrillar proteins in various organs and tissues. There are different forms of amyloidosis distinguished by the type of protein fibrils, by the sites of deposition and by associated conditions. Gastrointestinal involvement is common both in primary and secondary amyloidosis, while isolated gastrointestinal amyloidosis is rare. In this study the patient was referred for the treatment having abdominal distension. The pathology showed chronic mild-moderate inflammation of the gastric body mucosa associated with interstitial amyloidosis, with accompanying Helicobacter pylori infection. The treatment was given for the mentioned symptoms. But after the pathological investigation & Endoscopic Ultrasound study it had confirmed that the patient was having Amyloidosis. In the Endoscopic Ultrasound observation of gastric mucosa and thickening of sub mucosa was seen. Along with disappearance of normal levels and low echo in gastric amyloidosis. Download
    • A Study On Lipid Profiles In Chronic Liver Diseases

      In chronic liver disease decreased biosynthetic capacity of liver is observed hence unusually low levels of cholesterol and triglycerides are found. So the study was designed to observe the lipid profiles in the chronic liver diseases patients. The aim of the study is to find changes in lipid profile and metabolism within the patients suffering from chronic liver diseases. The patients admitted to hospitals and diagnosed with the chronic liver diseased were selected for the study. The study found that the there is changes in the lipid levels in the chronic liver diseases. Dyslipidaemia is the common finding in this type of conditions. It helps in diagnosis of severity of liver disease and also acts as a good predictive indication. The screening for the same is important for intervention with appropriate therapy to prevent cardiovascular events. Download
    • Assessment of Serum Paraoxonase Levels In Patients Fatty Liver Disease

      The liver plays a key role in the synthesis of serum Paraoxonase (PON). It is circulating enzyme in the serum and bound to HDL. PON has function as an anti-oxidant effective of protecting low density lipoproteins against peroxidative reactions. PON1 levels have been reported in a variety of diseases along with the liver diseases. The study was planned with the aim of ascertaining the diagnostic use of level of the PON in various diseases. The two group of patients were selected based as Fatty Liver disease patients and control group patients. The blood samples were withdrawn from the patients. The various biochemical parameters such as fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels were reposted in the two groups of the patients. The study has established PON levels were declined in patients with fatty liver disease. With the specificity and sensitivity of this enzyme being high, it could emerge as a parameter to assess liver function. Download
    • Antimicrobial Activity of Rose Geranium (Pelargonium roseum) Essential Oil on Bacteria of Veterinary Clinical Origin

      In the study on antimicrobial activity of rose geranium oil (GEO), 167 bacterial strains belonging to 22 genera and 49 species were tested. In total only seven strains were sensitive to GEO. Out of 15 reference strains included in the study only one (Streptococcus equi ssp. equi MTCC-3522) and six of the 120 isolates from clinically sick animals were found sensitive. None of the 26 isolates from environment (soil, water and air) and six from healthy animals was sensitive to GEO. All resistant strains (160) had minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) more than 2µL of GEO / mL of medium. Sensitive strains’ GEO MIC ranged between 0.2 µL/ mL to 2µL/ mL. The minimum MIC was for Pasteurella langaensis (0.2 µL/ mL) strain followed by strain of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi MTCC-3522 (0.4µL/ mL), Strept. intestnalis and Strept. pyogenes (0. 4µL/ mL), Strept. equi ssp. equi (0.8µL/ mL), Bacillus polymyxa (1.5 µL/ mL) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.0µL/ mL). The study emphasizes need for evolution of some short of central universally accepted guidelines to perform and report antimicrobial activity of herbal antimicrobials so that the comparable data can be analyzed for future meta-analytical and clinical purposes. Download
    • Analytical Techniques by Mass spectrophotometry for the Estimation of Mirtazapinein Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: A Review

      Mirtazapine (MRZ) has a piperazinoazepine structure1,2,3,4,10,14b-hexahydro-2- methylpyrazino [2,1-a]-pyrido [2,3-c][2] benzazepine}. It belongs to the class of noradrenergic and specific serotonergic inhibitor antidepressants (NaSSA). MRZ increases the central noradrenergic an serotonergic activity by blocking α2 adrenergic receptors. MRZ also acts as an antagonist of postsynaptic serotonin type 2 (5-HT2) and type 3 (5-HT3) drug has a different mechanism compared to most of the second generation antidepressants, and it is used to treat generalized anxiety , obsessive–compulsive , and post traumatic stress disorders . It has a high affinity for histamine H1 receptors: Literature survey reveals that Mirtazapine is estimated by Mass spectrometry. Download
    • A Review on Parenteral Controlled Drug Delivery System

      The Parenteral administration route is the most common and efficient for delivery of active drug substances with poor bio-availability and the drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. Drug delivery technology that can reduce the total number of injection throughout the drug therapy period will be truly advantageous not only in terms of compliance, but also to improve the quality of the therapy and also may reduce the dosage frequency. Parenteral drug delivery system seeks to optimize therapeutic index by providing immediate drug to the systemic pool in required quantity to treat– cardiac attacks, respiratory attacks. This article includes preparation, characterization and applications of parenteral controlled drug delivery system. Download
    • A Pilot Cross-Over Study to Assess the Human Bio Availability of “Cureit” A Bio Available Curcumin in Complete Natural Matrix

      Curcumin is a safe, effective and potential compound, finds its application as an ingredient for foods and medicines. In order to be effective as a medicine, it has to be more bio available than usual forms. Even though the concentration by composition is increased, it cannot be absorbed to the body- but, some formulations can. Curcumin is found to have potential benefits on treatment and prevention of several diseases. But, the low bioavailability makes a barrier for its use. Cureit, a novel bio available Curcumin formulation, have developed naturally, of which, bioavailability is compared with that of normal Curcumin. It is found to be >10 fold more bio available than the normal Curcumin. Download
    • A Short Review on the Medicinal Properties of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract Powder

      Moringa Oleifera, also known as Tree of life ,clarifier tree, Miracle tree, horseradish tree and drumstick tree, Many refer to this tree as "nutritional dynamite,“ as it contains enormous amounts of important nutrients like iron, calcium and Vitamin A. The leaf extract of Moringa poses many valuable pharmacological properties. The leaf extract possess many valuable health benefits also. This review focuses the potential of using Moringa Oleifera leaf extract powder in treating male sexual dysfunctions. Download
    • Anthelmintic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Tectonia Grandis

      Tectonia Grandis Linn. Belonging to family Verbenaceae commonly known as Teak or sagwan. It is commonly found in India and other south Asian countries. Teak is also considered as a major constituent in many folklore medicines. Medicinally it has various pharmacological activities. The present study was done with the aim to evaluate anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of bark of Tectonia grandis Linn. by using adult earthworm pheritima posthuma.Various concentration of extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Ivermectin was used as a reference standard and tween 80 in saline as a control group. Download
    • A Review on Atherosclerosis

      Atherosclerosis is the condition in which deposition of cholesterol on inner linings of arteries take place. In atherosclerosis plaque builds up in a series of stages inside arteries resulting into obstruction to blood flow. Atherosclerosis is the most leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Mostly arteries in the brain, heart, arms, legs & pelvis are affected. The disease is responsible for heart attacks, strokes, aortic aneurysms & peripheral vascular disease. This inflammatory disease is precipitated by elevated levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in blood. Endothelial dysfunction is the main stimuli for development of disease. Risk factors of atherosclerosis are both unmodifiable& modifiable which are important in assessment and should be monitored beginning in childhood, even in asymptomatic patients. . The plaques can be predicted by invasive & non-invasive imaging techniques. The blockages are treated by coronary artery bypass, heart catheterization. Medicines along with lifestyle improvement are also useful in management of atherosclerosis. Successful treatment minimizes chances of cardiovascular events, morbidity & mortality. Download
    • A Review On Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC)

      In recent years, significant technological advances have been made in particle chemistry performance, system optimization, detector design, and data processing and control. When brought together, the individual achievements in each discipline have created a step-function improvement in chromatographic performance. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) is a new category of analytical separation science that retains the practicality and principles of HPLC, while increasing the overall interlaced attributes of speed, sensitivity and resolution. UPLC can be regarded as a new direction for liquid chromatography. UPLC improves in three areas: “speed, resolution and sensitivity”. In this system uses fine particles (less than 2.5 μm) so decrease the length of column, saves time and reduces solvent consumption. Download
    • A Comparative Evaluation of Branded and Generic Versions of Levocetrizine and Cephalexin

      In India most of its population spend huge amount of money on the branded medicines but most of the drugs are also available in the generic version which comply with Indian Pharmacopoeial standards. By prescribing these medicines doctors can reduce cost burden from the patient’s pocket. Most of the drugs are also available at a lower price than the current marketed branded drugs. The main aim of this research work was to compare the generic versions of Cephalexin capsule 250 mg and Levocetrizine 5mg to their branded counterparts. It was concluded that the generics drugs met the Indian Pharmacopoeial standards and were of similar quality as that of branded drugs. Download
    • Assessment of Community Pharmacy Workflow Process in Preventing Dispensing Errors in Anantapur District

      The objectives of this analysis were to determine the compliance rate with dispensing workflow criteria and note if any dispensing errors occurred. Observations were made within 20 retail pharmacies, with a total of 500 prescriptions and transactions. Pharmacies were classified and categorized in to high and low risk pharmacies based on the incidence of errors. The compliance rates for the dispensing workflow criteria were observed between high and low risk pharmacies and also between employee categories. Employee categories included pharmacists, pharmacy assistants, pharmacy interns and technicians who were involved in the study for a 06 month period. There were statistically significant variations between the high and low risk pharmacies, between the employee categories. Based on this study, the lack of verification of patient details during prescription pickup was the lack, and more commonly associated with pharmacies dispensing workflow procedure reporting increased incidence of dispensing errors. Download
    • Assessment of Drug Related Problems in Geriatrics with Polypharmacy and Risk Measurement

      Drug related problems are an essential term in the world of pharmaceutical care. Other terms can be used for the same concept, such as medication errors, but this term is different from drug related problems. The fact that the elderly take more medications for the treatment of several diseases makes them more susceptible to the occurrence of adverse reactions. The errors refer to the mistakes in the process that could lead to problems. Drug related problems can originate when prescribing, dispensing or taking/administering medicines. The aim of this study was to analyze the Drug related problems and usage of drugs among geriatric patients living at old age homes. The results of study shows that males (59.33%) are more affected with chronic diseases than females(41.67%). Drug related problems due to drug interactions followed by drug overdose. Most of the interventions for inappropriate drug contraindications, adverse drug reactions were rectified and improved(100%) followed by other problems. our study concluded that pharmacist can prevent clinical drug related problems by making a suitable intervention. Download
    • An Overvıew on Fıxed Dose Combinations

      Fixed dose combinations have become an important alternative to monotherapies in the treatment of diseases as hypertension, diabetes, Helicobacter pylori, AIDS- HIV infections and tuberculosis, asthma and COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) by offering several advantages including patients compliance, simple dosage schedule, superior efficacy and tolerability, reduced risk of adverse events, cheaper shipment & packaging activities. This article covers the advantages and disadvantages of FDC’sas well ascritical issues during evaluation of FDC’s such as Efficacy, Safety, Bioavailability and Stability. Download
    • A Short Review on the Medicinal Properties of Chlorophyll Juice

      Plant products are of increasing interest in the search for new nutraceutical ingredients and natural medicines in the treatment of disease; and the discovery of new alternatives to existing antibiotics is an important area of this research due to pathogen resistance. One example of a plant product currently under pharmacological and medicinal investigation is chlorophyll juice. The purpose of this study is to review the nutritional and medicinal values of chlorophyll juice. Download
    • Antioxidant Potential of Leucas Aspera and Cassia Tora Roots

      Antioxidants are the substances that may protect our cells against the effects of free radicals. Free radicals may be defined as chemical species associated with an odd or unpaired electron. Cell damage caused by free radicals appears to be a major contributor to aging and degenerative diseases of aging such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, immune system decline, liver diseases, diabetes mellitus, inflammation, renal failure, brain dysfunction and stress among others. Leucas aspera is a used orally as stimulant, anthelmintic, laxative, diaphoretic, for the treatment of headache, asthma, and bronchitis. The decoction of roots, stem of Leucas aspera is used orally for high fevers, for influenza, and for malarial fevers. Cassia tora commonly is used as tonic, carminative and stimulant. According to Ayurveda the leaves and seeds are acrid, laxative, antiperiodic, anthelmintic, ophthalmic, liver tonic, cardiotonic and expectorant. This study was aimed to evaluation of anti-oxidant potential of the roots of Leucas aspera and Cassia tora Download
    • Assessment of Select Heavy Metals In Serum of Wistar Rats Administered with Fake Paracetamol Syrup

      A number of chemical adulterants or contaminants have been identified in paracetamol syrup in Nigeria, one of the most common ones being diethylene glycol. The presence of heavy metals in therapeutic preparations has also been reported in other parts of the world, with devastating consequences. The aim of this experimental work is to investigate the level of Cd, Pb, Al, Si, Ni, As, in the serum of rats administered with fake paracetamol syrup. Twenty-one female rats of average weight of 200 g were randomly divided into 3 groups of 7 rats each. Treatment lasted 21 days and the route of administration was by gastric gavage. The first group received 90 mg/kg of fake Bonadabe paracetamol, the second group was administered with 90 mg/kg BW of genuine Bonadabe® paracetamol and the third group served as the control. Statistical analysis of data obtained using analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed there were no significant differences in the serum levels of all the heavy metals investigated at p>0.05. Results of this study suggest that heavy metal contamination of pediatric drugs may not be common in Nigeria, although such contaminations have been reported for other preparations in some parts of the world. Download
    • Analysis Of Different Teaching Methodologies Applied In Undergraduate Programmes At Various Academic Institutions In Muscat A Survey Based Research

      Undergraduate students have the main responsibility for planning, implementing, and evaluating their effort in self-directed learning. It is an adult learning technique that assumes that the learner knows best what their educational needs are. The facilitator’s role is not only to support in self-directed learning is to support students in identifying their needs and goals for the program, but also to contribute to clarifying the students' directions and objectives and to offer timely feedback. Within the context of self-directed learning, adults can seek out and participate in a variety of teaching methods. It is important to give students opportunities to apply and reflect on lecture material during course time. Most educators agree that lectures are necessary, but that they should be limited in number and well delivered. The aim of this paper is to find out a suitable educational method to get expected educational objectives or learning outcomes from the students. Download
    • A New Era in Thalassemia Disorder An Overview

      Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production of hemoglobin. Haemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to cells throughout the body. A hemoglobin molecule has sub-units commonly referred to as alpha and beta. Both sub-units are necessary to bind oxygen in the lungs properly and deliver it to tissues in other parts of the body. The alpha chain is an important component of fetal hemoglobin (which is usually made before birth) and hemoglobin A and hemoglobin A2 (which are present after birth). Beta thalassemia is a fairly common blood disorder worldwide. Thousands of infants with beta thalassemia are born each year. Beta thalassemia occurs most frequently in people from Mediterranean countries, North Africa, the Middle East, India, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia. Thalassemia occurs when there is an abnormality or mutation in one of the genes involved in hemoglobin production. A physical exam may reveal a swollen (enlarged) spleen. Treatment for thalassemia major often involves regular blood transfusions and folate supplements. Untreated, thalassemia major leads to heart failure and liver problems, and makes a person more likely to develop infections.Avoid excess iron. Unless doctor recommends it, don't take vitamins or other supplements that contain iron. Eating a balanced diet that contains plenty of nutritious foods can help you feel better and boost your energy. Signs and symptoms are usually mild with thalassemia minor and little, if any, treatment is needed. Occasionally, you may need a blood transfusion, particularly after surgery, after having a baby or to help manage thalassemia complications. Download
    • A molecular outlook of Ebola Virus Infection Contemporary evidence and Future Implications

      A flare-up of EVD, which began in December 2013, is constantly advancing in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The first instance was accounted for from Guéckédou prefecture, which is a forested locale of south-eastern Guinean earth outskirt with Liberia and Sierra Leone. After an ease off in April, the flare-up has quickened amid the last two months. This is the biggest EVD episode ever documented, both regarding number of cases and geographical area. It is additionally the first run through EVD has spread to larger urban societies. Despite the fact that its clinical progression is well known, the particular mechanism underlying the pathogenicity of Ebola virus infection has not been obviously portrayed. This is expected to some degree, to the trouble in acquiring specimens and investigating the infection in the moderately remote regions in which the outbreaks happen. Also, a high level of biohazard regulation is needed for lab studies and clinical dissection. Segregation of the viral cDNAs and the development of expression framework shear permitted the investigation of Ebola virus infection under less restrictive conditions and encouraged an understanding of the mechanism underlying virally affected cell damage. Download
    • An Antioxidant and Bioactive Compound Studies of Parmelia Perlata, Ganoderma Lucidum And Phellinus Igniarius-Supplimentory Drug

      Medicinal mushrooms and lichens have been a great demand for their medicinal property and for food supplements. For this study, three extracts have been taken such as Parmelia perlata, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus igniarius; the solvents used for the extraction is aqueous and ethanol. The objective of the work is to qualitative and quantitative analysis of mechanical and nutritional analysis. In vitro analysis of antioxidants and free radical scavenging assay also were done. All the extracts show virtuous amount of bioactive compounds, appreciable amounts of antioxidant compounds and also good free radical scavenging effect against different radicals. This shows a good source for developing a medicinal drug. Download
    • Abuse And Misuse Potential of Commonly Used Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (Nsaids) In Indian Scenario, A Pharmacovigilance Model Study

      Objectives: 1. To find out the incidences and study various aspects of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) in the patients receiving NSAIDs for more than 15 days 2. To test the impact of pharmcovigilance model study in reporting ADR. Setting: 400 subjects on NSAID’s who are on drug treatment for not less than fifteen days Method: Study in patients on NSAID’s therapy, the data was obtained from Physician records, Community Pharmacists and patients by individual interactions using structured format based on the guidelines of CDSCO. Observations: Out of 400 patients 47 cases of ADRs were reported showing following demographic, 17% population consumed NSAID’s for more than one year period, 36% for more than 6 months, 29% for over 3 months and 13% for more than one month and 6 % for more than 15 days. 49% patients did not follow up with the physician and continued the same therapy while 51 % visited their Physician for follow up check up. 20 % patients were given increased per day dosage while 10% got reduced per day dosage and remaining 70% continued on same dosage regimen. ADR cases in fixed dosage combination were 7% while on monotherapy 5%. ADR cases associated with Etoricoxib 1.9%, Diclofenac 2.1%, Aceclofenac 1.5%, Nimuselide 1.1%, Ibuprofen 1.4% and Paracetamol 0.4%. Commonly encountered ADR reported were of Drowsiness, Diarrhea, Gastro intestinal ulcer, Flatulence, elevated hepatic enzymes during LFT and bio chemical changes in KFT. Conclusion: The evaluation of pharmacovigilance study demonstrated that NSAIDs are the most widely prescribed drugs in the management of pain. Monitoring of ADR is an important tool to prevent the damage to a organ system like Gastrointestinal, Renal system and hepatic functions. Fixed dose combinations of NSAIDs are less prescribed defining rationale use of NSAIDs in Indian scenario. Majority of the ADR reported were of mild to moderate in nature and no serious or severe reaction developed after prescribing NSAIDs which is a positive sign. Download
    • A Comparative Study on Different Methods of Granulation on Tablet Properties

      The active ingredient in a formulation represents a very small portion of the overall tablet, then the challenge is to ensure that each tablet has the same amount of active ingredient. Sometimes, blending the ingredients is not enough. The active ingredient may segregate from the other ingredients in the blending process. The ingredients may be incompatible because of particle size, particle density, flow characteristics, compressibility, and moisture content. These incompatibilities can cause problems such as segregation during blending or during transfer of the product to the press as well as separation of the active on the tablet press. Granulating the active ingredient by itself and then blending it with the rest of the ingredients is one solution to the segregation problem. Otherwise, all or most of the ingredients could be granulated together. The best course of action to ensure that each tablet contains the correct amount of active ingredient, especially if the active ingredient is only a small percentage of the tablet ingredients, is to mix the active ingredient thoroughly with some or most of the other ingredients and then granulate the blend (i.e., form the blend into granules). Each granule would contain a little of each of the ingredients, and the active ingredient would be distributed evenly. Different granulation techniques include Wet granulation, Dry granulation and Direct Compression. The method of granulation is chosen based on the ingredient’s individual characteristics and ability to flow, compress, eject, and disintegrate. Choosing a method requires thorough investigation of each ingredient in the formula, the combination of ingredients, and how they work with each other. Then, the proper granulation process can be applied. In this study, work was done to evaluate the different process of granulation techniques for the preparation of tablets. Download
    • Antiurolithiatic activity of InjiRasayanam: A Siddha Formulation

      Aqueous extract of Inji Rasayanam, was carried out to investigate antiurolithiatic activity by calcium oxalate crystallization was induced by the addition of 0.01M sodium oxalate solutions in synthetic urine and nucleation method.. The effect of Inji Rasayanam on calcium oxalate crystallization (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 μg/ml) was studied by time course measurement of turbidity in presence or absence of inhibitor (extract) at 620 nm for ten minutes by means of a spectrophotometer. Aqueous extract of Inji Rasayanam exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation. Download
    • Anti Oxidant Potential of “Cureit”- A Novel Bio Available Curcumin Formulation

      The major impediment towards the use of Curcumin for health benefits is its poor availability in the blood and tissues. This problem can be trounced by our innovative Curcumin preparation. The formulation treats curcumin as it occur inside the turmeric rhizome, where curcumin is more available in the blood. A human study conducted, where the innovative curcumin found to absorb ~15 times more as that of the normal curcumin. This Bio available curcumin was branded as “cureit” and its anti oxidant potential established. The study proves that “cureit” could be good source of natural antioxidant. Download
    • Antinociceptive and Neuroprotective Activity of Withania Somnifera (WS) Extract In Rat Model of Vincristine Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

      Peripheral neuropathy is defined as damage to the peripheral nervous system resulting in a syndrome of sensory loss, muscle weakness and atrophy along with vasomotor symptoms, alone or in any combination. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the Antinociceptive and neuroprotective activity of Withania somnifera (WS) extract in rat model of Vincristine induced peripheral neuropathy. This study accomplished that the WS extract improved body weights of the rats which were changed during the experiment, nociceptive threshold estimated to the extent of neuropathic pain by assessing the screening procedures; paw and tail cold allodynia, tail immersion, tail flick, paw heat hyperalgesia, motor in-co-ordination and mechanical hyperalgesia. Withania somnifera extract reversed the vincristine induced anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia in rats assessed by estimating the parameters- RBC, WBC, Haemoglobin percentage, hematocrit, platelet count and MCV. Vincristine induced oxidative stress (increased TBARS and decreases gluthathione) was attenuated by WS extract which was estimated in sciatic nerve homogenate. The nerve fiber dearrangement which was seen in the histopathological study of sciatic nerve samples against the vincristine induced peripheral neuropathy was reversed by Withania somnifera extract. Administration of WS extract attenuated the physical, behavioral, hematological, biochemical, histopathological parameters in vincristine induced neuropathy. Withania somnifera extract administration is claimed to be useful in the treatment of pain associated with peripheral neuropathy which may be attributed to antinociceptive, immunomodulator, antioxidant, neuroprotective activities supports the ethno-pharmacological activity of WS. Download
    • A Novel RP HPLC Method for Development and Validation of Cilnidipine In Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

      A simple, Precise, accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the estimation of cilnidipine in pharmaceutical dosage forms. separation was achieved on Symmetry C18 column (4.6 x 150mm), with mobile phase consisting of ortho phosphoric acid buffer pH 4 and Acetonitrile in 60:40, V/V. The flow rate was maintained at 1 ml/min and the analyte was monitored at 240nm wavelength. The retention time for cilnidipine was found to be 2.35 min. The linearity of the method was observed in the concentration range of 5-25ppm and correlation coefficient was found to be 0.999. The percentage assay of Cilnidipine was found to be 98.733%. The method was robust and rugged as observed from insignificant variation in the results of analysis by changes in flow rate and analysis being performed on different days. The method was validated for its accuracy, precision and system suitability. The results obtained in the study were within the limits of ICH guidelines and hence this method can be used for the routine estimation of Cilnidipine in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Download
    • A Descriptive Study of Childhood Malignancies: A Ten Year Study (1999-2008) In Regional Cancer Centre Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore

      Objective: The objective of this study was to find out the profile of childhood cancers in kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology (KMIO), Regional Cancer Centre Karnataka, India during 1999 to 2008. Methodology: It was a retrospective study using hospital based cancer registry records from January 1999 to December 2008. All the children below 15 years with confirmed diagnosis of cancer by means of Clinical, Imaging techniques, histological and cytological examinations were included in this study. Results: There were 79909 new confirmed cases attended outpatient department of KMIO during these 10 years. Among which 3879 were below 15 years of age. An average 388 cases attended per year. Overall pediatric tumors were 4.9% of total cancers. The frequency of cancer was found to be higher among boys (64%) than girls (36%) with a ratio of 1.6:1. Majority of the children were from Karnataka stae (81%) compared to (19%) from others area of India. The results showed that Leukemia (42.9%), Lymphoma (14.1%) and CNS (12.1%) were the commonly found childhood cancers among the children attended at KMIO, Bangalore during data collection period. Other commonly found tumor was bone tumour (5.2%), renal tumour (4.6%). Conclusion:, leukemia, Lymphoma and CNS commonly found in Male children same pattern also observed in females children also from 0-15 ages below 5 years in contradiction to retinoblastoma, hepatic tumour neuroblastoma and renal tumour which were prevalent in children less than 5 years of age. Download
    • Angiogenesis: An imprint for Melanoma Progression

      Angiogenesis happens in neurotic conditions, like in Malignant tumors, where a particular discriminating point in Malignant tumor development is the conversion from the avascular to the vascular stage. Malignant tumor angiogenesis depends fundamentally on the discharge by neoplastic cells of development variables particular for endothelial cells, which can empower the development of the host's veins. This article outlines the writing concerning the strong relationship between angiogenesis and human melanoma movement. The latest requisitions of antiangiogenic executors which meddle with melanoma movement are likewise depicted. Download
    • An Overview of Iranian Patent System

      Intellectual property protection is a one type of the protection to the innovator, rebelling from the creative efforts of the human Mind style exhibited by a virtuoso. The patenting system status in Iran is discussed using some recent statistics on the number of field and granted Iranian patents to resident and non-resident applicants. The Iranian patent laws differ from other countries. Patent system in Iran is briefly introduced and discussed in this paper to give the reader an overview of the status of the changes in the Iranian IP law. The Iranian patent legislation had a provision for registration of patent separately for resident and nonresident applicants. Download
    • A Case-Control Study of Stomach Cancer In Bangalore, India

      A case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for stomach cancer in a Hospital based cancer registry (HBCR) in India, at Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology. HBCR data was used to identify cases of stomach cancer, diagnosed between January 2011 to June 2011. Patients accompany used as (not only stomach cancer) controls matched according to sex. A total of 175 cases and 175 controls were interviewed. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with the risk of stomach cancer. Among demographic characters significantly increased risk was found for: education and economical status (OR 0.2, p <0.01 and 9.9, p<0.01). Dietary factors that were significantly associated with an increased risk were food grains other than rice, ragi, (OR 0.2, p<0.05), salted meat fish and mutton (OR 1.6, p<0.05). The consumption of vegetables, fruits, egg and fruit juice showed a protective effect. It follows that a developing economy and improvement in living standards, with an associated increased intake of fruit and vegetables and reduced consumption of salt, can contribute to a reduction in the incidence of stomach cancer. Download
    • A Modified Capillary Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Analysis of Fluconazole in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms Using Metronidazole as Internal Standard

      Powder (from capsules) or dry suspension, containing ~50 mg of fluconazole (FNZ), was dissolved in methanol, treated with 0.5 mL of metronidazole benzoate (5.0 mg mL-1; internal standard) and diluted to 5 mL with methanol. The solution was analyzed on a capillary glass column TRB-5 (30 m×0.25 mm, 0.25 μm) operated at 140 °C for 2 min, with a rise of 30 °C min-1 up to 230 °C (held for 4 min) and then increased to a final temperature of 240 oC, with N2 as carrier gas (3 mL min-1) and FID. The injector port and detector temperatures were maintained at 250 °C. Results of assay and recovery studies were statistically evaluated for its accuracy and precision. The retention times were about 8.55 and 10.48 min for fluconazole and I.S., respectively. The calibration graph (peak area) was rectilinear from 31.0 to 607.0 μg mL-1 of fluconazole. Correlation coefficients (R2) of the regression equations were greater than 0.999 in all cases. No interference from any components of pharmaceutical dosage forms or degradation products was observed. Download
    • Association of Plasma Protein C Levels and Coronary Artery Disease in Men

      Several studies have shown the risk factor causes of coronary heart disease. In this study we tested the hypothesis that plasma protein C level might be used as a biomarker for coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction. The study included 60 men that were classified into 3 groups according to clinical examination; group I set as healthy control group, group II set as patients with ischemic heart disease and group III set as patients suffering from myocardial infarction. Different parameters were measured including, coagulation factor prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen and protein C. The activity of the cardiac enzymes (creatine phosphokinase, creatine phosphokinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase) was also measured. Finally, lipids profile (total lipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterone (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) were measured. The results demonstrated significant decrease level of protein C and prothrombin concentration (%) in ischemic heart disease and in myocardial infarction (MI) groups, when compared to the control group. Meanwhile, MI group showed more significant decrease comparing to IHD. Plasma protein C might serve as a marker for coronary artery disease in men. Further studies are warranted to bolster the data and to identify pathogenesis links between innate immune system activation and atherosclerosis. Download
    • A Review on Advance Technologies for Developing Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems

      Over the past decades, developing controlled drug delivery has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry.Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged.Transdermal drug delivery represents one of the most rapidly advancing areas of novel drug delivery. Transdermal drug delivery system was introduced to overcome the difficulties of drug delivery through oral route. A transdermal patch is medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. With the advent of new era of pharmaceutical dosage forms, transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) established itself as an integral part of novel drug delivery systems. The present article reviews the polymers suitable to be formulated as transdermal system, advantages, and disadvantages of formulation design. Download
    • Anti-Atherosclerotic Activity of Polyherbal Formulation in Diet Induced Atherosclerosis

      Objective: Atherosclerosis is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present study highlights the antiatherosclerotic activity of hydroalcholic extract of polyherbal preparation in experimentally induced atherosclerotic hamsters. Methods: Atherosclerosis was developed in male Golden-Syrian hamsters, which were randomly divided into six groups of five animals each; by feeding with high cholesterol diet for 28 days. Group 1 received normal diet which served as negative control. Group 2 received high fat diet (HFD) which served as positive control. Group 6 served as standard, administered with Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) along with HFD and Group 3, Group 4 and group 5were administered with hydroalcholic extract of polyherbal preparation (200 mg/kg, 300 and 400 mg/kg) along with HFD. Results: Hydroalcoholic extract of polyherbal preparation reduced the raised serum level of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL and increased the serum HDL level as compared to the control group. Hydroalcholic extract of polyherbal preparation treated groups (200mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 400mg/kg) exhibited less damage to endothelial lining of aorta as compared to control group, which may be attributed to hypo-cholesterolemic activity of polyherbal preparation, which may be attributed to anti-atherosclerotic activity of polyherbal preparation. Conclusion: Our study indicates that high dose of hydroalcoholic extract of polyherbal formulation exerts potent anti-atherosclerotic effect in atherosclerotic hamsters. Download
    • Are Topical Steroids Useful In Treating Children With Eosinophilic oesophagitis

      Clinical Question Are topical steroids useful in treating children with Eosinophilic oesophagitis? Scenario A fifteen year old known asthmatic girl presents to A&E with recurrent episode of vomiting, history of chest pain and difficulty swallowing foods. She has strong history of atopy and has been prescribed oral aerosolised Fluticasone propionate for treatment of Eosinophilic oesophagitis after attempts of failed exclusion diets. Being a teenager, there was lot of anxiety involved in using oral steroid due to issues with body image, growth impairment and other side effects. You wonder if topical steroid as an alternative is efficacious in treating Eosinophilic oesophagitis. Download