• Total Quality Management: The Need of the Hour for Pharmaceutical Industry

      Total quality management play major role starting from initial establishment of a pharmaceutical industry to safe guard the marketed drug. It controls the overall quality system chain of a pharmaceutical product, which is to be purchased and utilized by the public in need.TQM is not un-dimensional approach but is multifaceted in nature. Understanding these facts is essential to promote a successful quality improvement programmed. An integrated approach on all vital components of TQM is required to achieve the desired goal. TQM has been accepted by both service and manufacturing organization, globally as a systemic management approach to meet the competitive challenges. TQM redefines the quality with emphasis on top management commitment and customer satisfactions. Drastic reduction in materials wastage, average saving per year increased and financial losses were minimized, workers were motivated to keep and operate materials with care and prevent wastage, and good team relationship was built among the workman and management. TQM provides the linkage between productivity and quality. The focus of TQM is an Involvement of everyone in organization in continuous improvement, Commitment to satisfy the customers, Participation through teamwork, Commitment and leadership of top management. Download
    • The Cogency and Impregnability of Acupuncture Therapy in Healing Ailment: A Critical Investigation

      Over its 2500 years of health improvement, an abundance of experience has aggregated in the act of acupuncture, confirming the extensive variety of maladies and conditions that can be successfully treated with this methodology. Dissimilar to numerous other conventional techniques for treatment, which have a tendency to be particular to their national or cultural context, acupuncture has been utilized all through the world, especially since the 1970s. Doctors rehearsing acupuncture in diverse nations were welcome to recognize the conditions that may advantage from this treatment. The members drew up a rundown of 43 suitable maladies. In this distribution article the expression "acupuncture" is utilized as a part of its wide sense to incorporate customary body needling, moxibustion, electro-acupuncture, laser acupuncture, microsystem acupuncture, for example, ear, face, hand and scalp acupuncture, and pressure point massage . The points of interest of acupuncture are that it is straightforward, helpful and has few contraindications. In spite of the fact that the achievement rate of acupuncture treatment in treating kidney stones, for instance, is affirmed by similar studies with different treatments, it is in no way, shape or form as high as that of surgical intercession. In any case, acupuncture treatment of kidney stones is still justified even despite prescribing due to its straightforwardness, which makes it more adequate to patients. Various instance uncover that the regulatory activity of acupuncture is bi-directional. Acupuncture brings down the pulse in patients with hypertension and lifts it in patients with hypotension; increments gastric discharge in patients with hypoacidity, and reductions it in patients with hyperacidity; and standardizes intestinal motility under X-ray observation in patients with either spastic colitis or intestinal hypotonia. Download
    • TLC, HPTLC Studies and Qualitative Phytochemical Investigations of Seeds of Celastrus Paniculatus Willd

      Phytochemical and Pharmacological studies on Celastrus paniculatus Willd are an interesting field for research due to its possible medicinal values and the importance of the chemical constituents in the similar variety plants. Thus it makes a great significance to investigate the chemical constituents and study the pharmacological activity on this plant for its medicinal uses, which will be very useful in the field of medicine as a new emerging drug. Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, Steroid, Terpenoid, Flavonoids, and Glycoside distribution in medicinal plant belonging to family was assessed and was investigated. The plant was found to contain Alkaloids, Tannins and Flavonoids, Steroids etc. The significance of the plant in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents in this plant was objective of this study. Download
    • Traditional Systems of Medicine in India

      The Indian System of Medicine is of great antiquity. It is the culmination of Indian thought of medicine which represents a way of healthy living valued with a long and unique cultural history, as also amalgamating the best of influences that came in from contact with other civilizations be it Greece (resulting in Unani Medicine) or Germany (Homeopathy) or our scriptures/sages which gave us the science of Ayurveda, Siddha. Medicinal plants based traditional systems of medicines are playing important role in providing health care to large section of population, especially in developing countries. Interest in them and utilization of herbal products produced based on them is increasing in developed countries also. To obtain optimum benefit and to understand the way these systems function, it is necessary to have minimum basic level information on their different aspects. For Standardization and testing of drugs, various agencies have been put in plan by the Government of India. Four different Pharmacopoeia Committees are working for preparing official formularies / pharmacopoeias to evolve uniform standards in preparation of drugs of Unani, Ayurveda, Homeopathy and Siddha and to prescribe working standards for single drugs as well as compound formulations. In this review, an attempt has been made to provide general information pertaining to different aspects of these systems. This is being done to enable the readers to appreciate the importance of the conceptual basis of these systems in evolving the material medica. The aspects covered include information about historical background, conceptual basis, different disciplines studied in the systems, Research and Development aspects, Drug manufacturing aspects and impact of globalization on these systems. Download
    • The Dawning Era for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Development: An Imminent Mirror

      Treating AIDS is by and large taken to mean clearing the HIV from the body, the virus that lead to AIDS. The virus reproduces (makes new duplicates of itself) by embedding its hereditary code into human cells, especially a type called as CD4 cells. Typically the contaminated cells produce various HIV particles and pass on soon subsequently. Antiretroviral medications meddle with this replication process, which is the reason the medications are so viable at lessening the measure of HIV in an individual's body to amazingly low levels. Tragically, not all contaminated cells act the same way. Likely the most imperative issue is postured by resting CD4 cells. Once tainted with HIV, these cells, as opposed to delivering new duplicates of the virus, lie lethargic for a long time. Current treatments can't expel HIV's hereditary material from these cells. Regardless of the fact that patient takes antiretroviral medications for a long time, HIV still be hiding up in different parts of their body. Studies have observed that if treatment is uprooted then HIV can re-make itself by spilling out viral repositories. As of now, there is no therapeutic choice accessible other than constant prescription of medications for avoiding HIV replication. In spite of the fact that scientists have distinguished cell reservoirs where the virus perseveres amid proceeded with antiretroviral treatment, the methodologies that can be produced to dispose of these reservoirs or bring them under viable and persevering control, without the requirement for antiretroviral treatment, stay misty. Whichever methods are inevitably tried, be that as it may, they must be tried in a patient populace that is getting blend ART, a treatment that is for the most part powerful and generally safe. Download
    • Trends in Prostate cancer incidence in Bangalore, India

      Prostate cancer has emerged as the most frequent cancer amongst men in world and also in Asian countries including India, with incidence increasing rapidly over the past two decades. Incidence has been drastically increasing in the all Indian Urban Registries, although in a few Registries with very significant increasing trend (Bangalore, Bhopal, Chennai, Delhi and Kamrup). We analyzed a 25 years Population Based Cancer Registry Data at Kidwai memorial institute of oncology (KMIO) for comparison with other registries used national cancer registry report (NCRP). Material and methods: Prostate cancer cases were drawn from Bangalore population-based cancer registry locating at Kidwai memorial Institute of Oncology started in 1982 under national cancer Registry Programme funded by Indian Council of Medical Research. Time trends in sex- and age-standardised cancer incidence rates were analysed by using statistical tools like Joinpoint and Annual parentage Change (APC) over the study period. Results: Prostate cancer being most emerging site with 157.7 relative percentage change by combining first three years of registry started to recent years. Age-standardised prostate cancer incidence rates increased. A significant increased trend over the study period observed a considerable variability in the magnitude of the annual increase approximately 6.5% in Bangalore from 1996 onwards. Download
    • The Blood-Brain Barrier: Implications For Chemotherapy And Its Delivery To The Brain In Primary And Metastatic Brain Tumor, A Novel Approach

      Nearly 12.5 million new cancer cases are diagnosed worldwide each year. Although new treatments have been developed, most new anticancer drugs that are effective outside the brain have failed in clinical trials against brain tumors, in part due to poor penetration across the BBB and the blood–brain tumor barrier. Conventional treatment using radiation and intravenous chemotherapy often prove unsuccessful primarily because the anticancer drugs fail to cross the BBB in sufficient quantities. The focus is now on targeted drug therapy by not only supplementing conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but also by preventing toxicity in normal tissues and drug resistance.Hence this work aims to investigate the therapeutic regimen of primary and metastatic brain tumors and drugs that fail to cross the BBB in sufficient quantities through conventional treatment and a novel approach for the delivery of these drugs. A total number of 30 patients were enrolled from 5 different hospitals of Karachi. Each prescription was scrutinized and the treatment line was noted down. The treatment strategy was the main highlight of this study as to what was planned for the patient to get the most effective result. Download
    • The Dawning Era of Nano Medicine for Anti-Cancer Therapy

      Nanotechnology gives a mixed bag of Nano scale instruments for medicine. Cancer Nano therapeutics is quickly advancing and is continuously being actualized to tackle a few confinements of drug delivery systems for example nonspecific biodistribution and focusing on, absence of water dissolvability, poor oral bioavailability, and low therapeutic indices. To enhance the bio distribution of cancer medications, nanoparticles have been intended for ideal size and surface characteristics to build their circulation time in the circulatory system. They are likewise fit to convey their stacked active drugs to cancer cells by specifically utilizing the extraordinary pathophysiology of tumors, for example, their upgraded permeability and retention impact and the tumor microenvironment. Notwithstanding this aloof focusing on mechanism, active focusing on methods utilizing ligands or antibodies administered against chose tumor targets enhance the specificity of these therapeutics nanoparticles. Medicine resistance, an alternate obstruction that blocks the viability of both molecularly focused on and routine chemotherapeutic executors, may additionally be succeed, or in any event diminished, utilizing nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have the capacity to accumulate in cells without being perceived by P-glycoprotein, one of the principle arbiters of multidrug resistance, bringing about the expanded intracellular concentration of medications. Multifunctional & multiplex nanoparticles are presently being energetically explored and are coming soon as the next era of nanoparticles, encouraging customized and custom-made tumor treatment. Download
    • The Panorama of Genetic Inheritance Intricacy in Gene Expression Analysis

      The view that alter the control of gene expression rather than changes to protein sequences are focal to the development of organism has ended up something of a truism in molecular biology. Truly, the direct confirmation for this is constrained, and just lastly we have the capability to look more comprehensively at how genetic variation impacts gene expression, centering upon individual variation in gene expression and utilizing microarrays to test for difference in mRNA levels. Understanding the impact of genetics on the molecular mechanism underpinning human phenotypic diversity is major to having the capacity to anticipate health outcome and treat illness. To question the role of genetics on cell state and function, gene expression has been widely utilized. Previous and recent studies have highlighted imperative patterns of heritability, populace separation and tissue-specificity in gene expression. such studies are exploiting system biology based methodologies and advances in sequencing technology: new philosophy means to make an expressions of regulatory networks to enhance pathways responsible of ailment etiology and second era sequencing now offers single molecular resolution of the transcriptome giving remarkable data on the structural and genetic attributes of gene expression. Such advances are prompting a future where rich cell phenotypes will encourage understanding of the transmission of genetic impact from the gene to organism. Download
    • The Purview of Regulatory Affairs in the Pharmaceutical Industry

      A regulatory affair is a profession which acts as a liaison between the pharmaceutical organization and drug regulatory authorities across the world. Each and every country had their regulations which are different to each other; Regulatory professional will collect that information and implements in the company to get their drug marketing approval. The main origin of the formation of this department is various drug disasters happened before Federal Food drug and cosmetic Act. Delay in application filling and marketing approval causes huge monetary losses to the company regulatory professional will try to decrease the time between those. A regulatory professional role lies in product development, clinical trials, and in research and development. Download
    • The Relationship between Clinical Governance and performance indicators in Iranian Hospitals

      ABSTRACT Introduction: Healthcare organizations are complicated and their structures, processes and management are of high significance for promoting the quality of clinical care. Clinical governance, as a healthcare quality improvement instrument, detects the complications and tries to solve some of the problems through providing integrated, comprehensive strategies and moving toward quality improvement. The main purpose of present study was to determine the relationship between clinical governance and performance indicators in Iranian hospitals. Methods: The present study was conducted at 16 hospitals (N=16) and their clinical governance performance was evaluated using the Treatment Deputy of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) checklist containing all items of the seven clinical governance pillars and their scores; in the end, the total scores of the seven pillars were calculated and considered as the hospital’s score. Performance indicators were also obtained from the statistics department of the hospitals under study. The Pearson and Spearman correlation tests were used to determine the presence of a relationship between clinical governance and hospital performance indicators. Results: The mean score of the overall performance of clinical governance in the investigated hospitals was 817.93 of 1116 total score; the hospitals were at moderate level considering the performance indicators from March 2012 to March 2013. The maximum correlations belonged to risk management and patient safety(r=0.708, P=0.002)and the minimum was between management and leadership (r=0.505, P=0.046). Conclusion: There was no statistically meaningful relationship between clinical governance and performance indicators of the studied hospitals. Among the seven aspects, risk management and patient safety, use of information, management and leadership as well as clinical audit were positively and significantly associated with clinical governance performance. Download