• Needs and Necessity of Polyploidy in Medicinal Plants

      Polyploids are organisms with multiple sets of chromosomes in excess of the diploid number. Polyploidy is common in nature and provides a major mechanism for adaptation and speciation. Approximately 50-70% of angiosperms, which include many crop plants, have undergone polyploidy during their evolutionary process. Flowering plants form polyploids at a significantly high frequency of 1 in every 100,000 plants. Many studies have been carried out to understand the nature of polyploidism. The polyploid condition may bring about several advantages compared to the diploid state. Polyploids often show phenotypes that are not present in their diploid progenitors or exceed the range of the contributing species. Some of these traits may play a role in heterosis or could favor adaptation to new ecological niches. Advances in genomics and sequencing technology may create unprecedented opportunities for discovering and monitoring the molecular effects of polyploidization. Through this review, we provide an overview of technologies and strategies that may allow an in-depth analysis of polyploid genomes. After introducing some basic aspects on the origin and genetics of polyploids, we highlight the main tools available for genome and gene expression analysis and summarize major findings. In the last part of this review, the implications of next generation sequencing are briefly discussed. The accumulation of knowledge on polyploid formation, maintenance, and divergence at whole-genome and subgenome levels will not only help plant biologists to understand how plants have evolved and diversified, but also assist plant breeders in designing new strategies for crop improvement. Download
    • Nipah Virus (NiV): An Emerging Potential Threat to South East Asia

      Nipah virus is an emerging zoonotic virus that can cause lethal respiratory manifestations and encephalitis. Though originated in Malaysia, scattered infections from nipah virus are found in Thailand, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh and regions of Southeast Asia. Pteropus fruit bats are the natural reservoirs and from them infection can spread to humans and some other animals. This infection can be transmitted from human to other humans as well as from infected pigs to humans. Currently we are at a greater risk of nipah infection due to our limited knowledge, rapid spread, migration activities among people , high case mortality ,inefficient treatment and no vaccines. Diagnosis modalities include ELISA, PCR, immunofluorescence assays and culture of virus. Nipah virus mainly affects respiratory tract causing influenza like symptoms but some patients also present with encephalitis which leads to ultimate death. As the case fatality rate is high and treatment is mainly supportive, prevention plays the main role in controlling infection. Download
    • Novel Approach of Treatment for Beta Blocker and Calcium Channel Blocker Toxicity, a High Dose Insulin Therapy

      Poison-induced cardiogenic shock (PICS) as a result of beta-blocker (β-blocker) or calcium channel blocker (CCB) overdose is a common and highly life-threatening condition. Conventional therapies, including fluid resuscitation, atropine, cardiac pacing, calcium, glucagon, and vasopressors often fail to improve hemodynamic status. High-dose insulin (HDI) is an emerging theraphy for PICS. In this article, we discuss the existing literature and highlight the therapeutic success and potential of HDI. Based on the current literature, which is limited primarily to case series and animal models, the authors conclude that HDI can be effective in restoring hemodynamic stability, and recommend considering its use in patients with PICS that is not responsive to traditional therapies. Future studies should be undertaken to determine the optimal dose and duration of therapy for HDI in PIC. Download
    • Novel UV Spectrophotometric Determination of Rabeprazole Sodium In Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

      Rabeprazole (RBZ) sodium is a substituted benzimidazole that inhibits gastric acid secretion and used for the treatment of erosive or ulcerative GERD, DU and hypersecretory syndromes including ZES. In present work, a simple, sensitive, accurate and economical spectroscopic method has been developed for the estimation of Rabeprazole in Bulk and its pharmaceutical dosage forms. An absorption maximum was found to be at 292 nm with the solvent system 0.05N NaOH. The drug follows Beer law in the range of 2-18 μg/ml with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The percentage recovery of Rabeprazole ranged from 99.8 to 100.2 % in pharmaceuticaldosage form. Results of the analysis were validated for accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ and were found to be satisfactory. The proposed method is simple, rapid and suitable for the routine quality control analysis. Download