• Monoclonal Antibodies Present New Opportunities in Disease Diagnosis and Treatment

      The production of MAbs by hybridoma technol¬ogy was discovered in 1975 by Georges Kohler of West Germany and Cesar Milstein of Argentina. Who developed a technique to fuse splenocyte cells (separated from the spleen of an immunized mouse) with tumorous myeloma cells., our vision for antibodies as tools for research for prevention, detection and treatment of diseases, vaccine production, antigenic characterization of pathogens and in the study of genetic regulation of immune responses and disease susceptibility has been revolutionized. Recently, MAbs have been widely applied in the field of clinical medicine. They are also used in the tissue typing, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, radio immunoassay, immunological intervention with passive antibody, or magic bullet therapy with cytotoxic agents coupled with anti-mouse specific antibody. Download
    • Method Development and Validation of Cetirizine hydrochloride, Phenylephrine hydrochloride and Nimesulide by UV and HPLC

      Phenylephrine HCL, Cetirizine HCL and Nimesulide, one of the most commonly prescribed Nasal decongestant, Antihistamine and Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory respectively, In this regard, the research and development of reliable analytical methods for self-determination. It is freely soluble in water, methanol and acetonitrile. Insoluble in acetone. The main aim of present Research work is to develop and validate a method for estimation of Cetirizine HCL, Phenylephrine HCL & Nimesulide by the using of UV visible spectrophotometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Double beam UV –visible spectrophotometer with 10 mm matched quartz cell (Shimadzu -1700) one is sample and other is reference were use for quantitative estimation of Phenylephrine HCL, Cetirizine HCL and Nimesulide. The various trials were carried out by varying parameters. RP-HPLC method for estimation of pharmaceutical dosage form was developed successfully. Chromatographic separation was performed on Phenomenex Gemini C18 stainless steel column with dimension 250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size. The mobile phase consisting of a acetonitrile : water (ph3) 60:40 v/v) was delivered at rate of 1 ml/min. The detection was made at 229 nm. Mobile phase was filtered through a 0.45 μ membrane filter paper and degassed before analysis. Separation was performed at ambient temperature. Download
    • Mucoadhesive Microspheres of Anti-allergic Agent for Nasal Delivery

      The objective of research work was to develop and optimize mucoadhesive microspheres of anti-allergic agent (cetirizine) for nasal delivery with the aim to enhance the residence time and improve therapeutic efficacy and at the same time increase the local absorption of drug and reducing systemic side effects and also to develop unique delivery system for patients suffering from allergy and rhinitis. Mucoadhesive microspheres (Chitosan based) of cetirizine were prepared by emulsification-crosslinking method in different ratio. Glutaraldehyde was used as crosslinking agent. The mean particle size was significantly increased when high concentration of chitosan was used. Aqueous to oil phase ratio, stirring rate and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS) concentration also influenced the particle size distribution of the microspheres. Microspheres were evaluated with respect to the production yield, particle size, entrapment efficiency, swelling index, FT-IR, in vitro mucoadhesion, cumulative percentage drug release, histological study and stability studies. Formulation Cf3 was found to be optimized. The optimized formulation Cf3 was mucoadhesive in nature which adhere onto the mucus and increase the residence time within the nasal cavity. Download
    • Monitoring of Oxidative Stress in Alcoholic Liver Disease

      The close association between oxidative stress and lifestyle-related diseases has become well known. Chronic consumption of alcoholic beverages is a primary cause of liver injury. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to initiation and progression of liver injury. A study was carried out in 30 cirrhotic patients with chronic alcoholism of 30-55 years of age. The blood samples were collected for the estimation of the biochemical factors. The serum obtained from samples was subjected to estimation of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Plasma Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Gamma Glutamyl transferase. The level of the ALT, AST, MDA & GGT were significantly found increased in alcoholic liver diseases patients when compared to normal patients. This concludes that increased oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant defence system in alcoholic liver diseases patients. Download
    • Method Development and Validation of Milnacipran by using RP-HPLC Method

      A rapid and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the validated of Milnacipran, in its pure form as well as in capsule dosage form. Chromatography was carried out on a phenomanix C18 (4.6 x 250mm, 5µm) column using a mixture of Acetonitrile: Triethylamine buffer pH 4.5(65:35% v/v)as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8ml/min, the detection was carried out at 215 nm. The retention time of the Milnacipran was 2.16 min respectively. The method produce linear responses in the concentration range 5-25 mg/ml of Milnacipran. The method precision for the determination of assay was below 2.0% RSD. The method is useful in the analysis of bulk and pharmaceutical formulations of Millancipran. Download
    • Molecular Imprinting: An Emerging Technology

      This article gives the recent developments in molecular imprinting for proteins. Currently bio-macromolecules such as antibodies and enzymes are mainly employed for protein recognition purposes. However, such bio-macromolecules are sometimes difficult to find and/or produce, therefore, receptor-like synthetic materials such as protein-imprinted polymers have been intensively studied as substitutes for natural receptors. Recent advances in protein imprinting shown here demonstrate the possibility of this technique as a future technology of protein recognition. This review summarizes the previous and current literature regarding the analytical tools employed for characterization of synthesized MIPs. It is our expectation that this will facilitate researchers to plan their own sophisticated analytical pathway for characterization of MIPs in a more logical and structured fashion, and to begin to appreciate the limitations of the present approaches in this molecularly complex area. Download
    • Microbial Effects and Approaches on Biodegradation of Polyethylene: A Review

      With its increasing demand in human life, the enormous production of polyethylene leads to their huge accumulation in the environment. They are durable and very stable in nature and remain inert to degradation and deterioration. This review focuses on various microbial effects and approaches on biodegradation of polyethylene. On basis of available literatures on biodegradation of polyethylene, this review attempts to cover the sources of polyethylene degrading microbes, mechanisms of degradation, cost effective methods and experiments as well as various analytical techniques to determine the biodegradation. It also concludes with some future aspects and idea on potentially viable methods to reduce the impacts of polyethylene waste on the environment. Download
    • Metabolic Control Improves Baroreflex Sensitivity In Diabetic Rats

      Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of glycemic control on the baroreflex sensitivity, in rats having uncontrolled diabetes. Methods: Diabetes was induced in healthy male Wistar albino rats by a single intraperitonial injection of Streptozotocin (STZ). Experiments were conducted eight weeks after induction of diabetes. The baroreflex was evaluated by measuring the changes in heart rate (HR) with changes in arterial blood pressure induced by bolus injections of phenylephrine (vasoconstrictor) and sodium nitroprusside (vasodilator). Results: After 8 weeks of STZ administration the reflex bradycardia and tachycardia response to hypertension and hypotension respectively were impaired in the diabetic group but improved after one month of Insulin therapy. The decreased body weight, heart rate and blood pressure and raised blood sugar in diabetic rats were improved by Insulin therapy. Insulin significantly reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine levels in diabetic rats. Conclusions: Results suggest that glycemic control with Insulin improves the altered baroreflex sensitivity in diabetic rats possibly through maintaining endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities and decreasing cytokine levels. Download
    • Marketing Authorization of Homeopathic Medicinal Product in Europe: An Overview

      The Council of the European Communities stated in the preamble to a directive that homeopathy was officially recognized in certain member states. In any case it was prescribed and used in all member states. In order to harmonize the market of homeopathic products, the council, in Directive 92/73/EEC directed the member states to implement certain changes in their national legislation. Directive 92/73/EEC was replaced by Directive 2001/83/EC on the Community code relating to medicinal products for human use. Member states are required to ensure that homeopathic products (for oral or external use) can be registered by skipping the proof of therapeutic efficacy, provided that there is a sufficient degree of dilution to guarantee the safety of the product; in particular, the product may not contain either more than 1/10,000th of the mother tincture or more than 1/100th of the smallest dose used in medicine, with regard to active principles whose presence in a medicinal product results in the obligation to submit a doctor's prescription. Download