• Genital Fistula A Case Series Report from A Teaching Hospital In Roraima, Brazil

      Objectives: Genital fistula is one of the most debilitating conditions affecting females in developing countries and occurs as a result of obstructed labor or gynecological surgeries. The objective of this study was to review the cases of genital fistulae at a teaching hospital in Roraima, Brazil. Methods: Sixteen cases of genital fistulae were treated over a period of six years from 2008 to 2013. These included 15 cases of genitourinary fistulae (vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) = 14, ureterovaginal fistula (UVF) = 1) and one rectovaginal fistula (RVF). Results: The most common cause of fistula formation was total abdominal hysterectomy for the treatment of uterine fibroids (13/16, 81%). The VVFs were all supratrigonal in location and measured from 0.3 to 0.6 cm in length. Fifty percent of the VVFs (7/14) were treated using the transvaginal approach (Latzko’s method), while 36% (5/14) were treated via the transabdominal route. The remaining two VVFs (14%) were treated conservatively using the endoscopic cauterization method. Conclusions: An overall success rate of 100% was observed of which 75% (12/16) were successfully repaired at the first attempt. Follow-up period ranged from seven months to six years and no further complications were noted. Download
    • Genetic Disorders : Health and Oral Health – A Review

      The basic principles of genetics were laid down by GREGOR MENDEL AND FRANCIS GALTON towards the close of 19th century. But, it is only during the past few years the science of genetics and human genetics has made rapid progress. The discovery of biologic role of nucleic acids, the uncovering of the structure of the genetic information and its role in regulating life processes are discoveries, the importance of which can hardly be overestimated. Human genetics is much more than the study of mere hereditary diseases. It has emerged as a basic biological science for understanding the endogenous factors in health and disease. Owing to the rapid specialization, several branches in genetics have come into being examples – Cytogenetics, Clinical genetics, Biochemical genetics, Pharmacogenetics, Immunogenetics, Population genetics and so on. Achievements in these fields have created a basis for effective medical and preventive intervention in many diseases and also possibly of “Genetic Engineering” that is of controlling the traits of an individual. Download