• Cajanus Cajan Mediated Gold Nanoparticle Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial efficacy and its Antifouling Application on Metal Coupons

      The present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AuNPs using Leaf extract of Cajanus cajan and its characterization through UV-Vis Spectrophotometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), DLS – Size Distribution and Zeta potential and biofilm accumulation analysis by Epi – Florescence Microscopy. The ability of the green synthesized Gold Nanoparticles to control/prevent the biofilm forming bacterial communities (which were considered as primary colonizers) was analysed by conducting the antimicrofouling studies. The Gold Nanoparticles were found to control the growth and survival of biofilm forming bacteria effectively on SS304 metal coupons. The present work gives scope for the possible development of formulations containing AuNps as effective antifouling agent that could prevent microfouling, thereby preventing marine biofouling. Download
    • Clinical Applications and Anatomic Variation of Inferior Phrenic Arteries and their Branches by 64-Slice Spiral CT Angiographic Analysis

      Objectives: The present study aims at determining the ability of 64-slice spiral CT angiographic analysis to identify the origin and distribution of both the left and right IPAs and its branches in normal and pathological cases. Methods: Three hundred cases of normal healthy subjects aged 20-89 years (median age = 54 years) who received the 64-slice spiral CT of abdominal vessel two-stage contrast-enhanced from the First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University from August 2015 to February 2016 were selected for the study. Then the bilateral origin of the IPA was recorded, diameter and performance were measured, and the obtained data was then compared with that of the normal group. The statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS version 17.0 statistical software. Results and Conclusion: In addition, the IPA is frequently reconstructed through several pathways, mainly through the retroperitoneal network. The study also aims to apply such findings to the clinical scenario of treating HCC. IPA with 64-slice spiral CT angiography can clearly show the normal anatomy and variation of IPA. Download
    • Cajanus Cajan Mediated Gold Nanoparticle Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial efficacy and its Antifouling Application on Metal Coupons

      The present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AuNPs using Leaf extract of Cajanus cajan and its characterization through UV-Vis Spectrophotometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), DLS – Size Distribution and Zeta potential and biofilm accumulation analysis by Epi – Florescence Microscopy. The ability of the green synthesized Gold Nanoparticles to control/prevent the biofilm forming bacterial communities (which were considered as primary colonizers) was analysed by conducting the antimicrofouling studies. The Gold Nanoparticles were found to control the growth and survival of biofilm forming bacteria effectively on SS304 metal coupons. The present work gives scope for the possible development of formulations containing AuNps as effective antifouling agent that could prevent microfouling, thereby preventing marine biofouling. Download
    • Clinical Applications and Anatomic Variation of Inferior Phrenic Arteries and their Branches by 64-Slice Spiral CT Angiographic Analysis

      Objectives: The present study aims at determining the ability of 64-slice spiral CT angiographic analysis to identify the origin and distribution of both the left and right IPAs and its branches in normal and pathological cases. Methods: Three hundred cases of normal healthy subjects aged 20-89 years (median age = 54 years) who received the 64-slice spiral CT of abdominal vessel two-stage contrast-enhanced from the First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University from August 2015 to February 2016 were selected for the study. Then the bilateral origin of the IPA was recorded, diameter and performance were measured, and the obtained data was then compared with that of the normal group. The statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS version 17.0 statistical software. Results and Conclusion: In addition, the IPA is frequently reconstructed through several pathways, mainly through the retroperitoneal network. The study also aims to apply such findings to the clinical scenario of treating HCC. IPA with 64-slice spiral CT angiography can clearly show the normal anatomy and variation of IPA. Download
    • Chronic Arsenic Toxicity and Cancer

      Arsenic pollution in ground water has been envisaged as a problem of Global concern. Chronic arsenic toxicity (arsenicosis) due to drinking of arsenic contaminated ground water is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world including India and Bangladesh. Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water can cause increased risk of skin, lung, kidney, bladder cancer, liver disease and chronic respiratory problems. The exact molecular mechanism of arsenic induced carcinogenesis is still less understood. Both arsenite and its metabolites can have a variety of genotoxic effects, which may be mediated by oxidants or free radical species. All of these species also have effects on signaling pathways leading to proliferative responses. There are interesting differences in the activities of inorganic and organic species both in terms of target organ carcinogenicity and genotoxic and toxic mechanisms. A scientific consensus has not yet been reached on the many suggested modes of arsenic carcinogenesis that exist in the literature. These include modes that are predominately genotoxic (i.e.,chromosomal abnormalities, oxidative stress, and gene amplification) vs. more nongenotoxic (i.e., altered growth factors, enhanced cell proliferation and promotion of carcinogenesis, and altered DNA repair). Likewise, the dose-response relationship at low arsenic concentrations for any of these suggested modes is not known. Download
    • Comparative Assessment of Analytical Methods of Orally Disintegrated Tablet of Ondansetron

      Ondansetron ODT, most widely used anti-emetic drug, in this regard, the Research and Validation of reliable analytical method for determination. The main aim of present Research work to Validate a method for estimation of Ondansetron ODT by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. For Chromatographic determination, mixture of Potassium phosphate:acetonitrile(52:48) was used as mobile phase, the column having length of 4.6 mm × 25 cm and containing packing L7 which is maintained at 45 ± 1 ˚C temperature. The injection volume was 10 µl and the flow rate was 1.5 mL/min. The assay method was validated for analytical parameters such as linearity, accuracy, precision, system suitability, robustness and range. From the results it is concluded that, HPLC is less time consuming and cost reducing and the results obtained are more accurate, precise and reproducible as compared to UV Download
    • Characterization and Optimization of Thermostable Alkaline Protease Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Tannery effluent

      Proteases are being an industrial candidate, which are widely used in bakery, beverages and detergent industry. The leather industry deals with proteinous skin material for the conversion of leather and this generates huge amount of solid and liquid wastes giving rise to pollution that need to be overcome by introducing sustainable cleaner technologies. This study is a search for potential protease producing strain from tannery industry effluent. Different isolates were screened for the ability to produce protease. Then the potential organisms were tested using various biochemical tests, which lead to their identification as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The effects of various environmental factors on the production of protease were studied. The organism showed the maximum growth and enzyme production at pH 8.0 and temperature at 40ºC. The protease enzyme was purified using ammonium sulphate (70%) precipitation. Further purification was done by membrane dialysis. The crude and partially purified protease was preliminary characterized and used for dehairing process and destaining process at lab scale level in which the dialyzed fraction showed comparatively significant effect. The protease obtained from these strains showed good stability and activity in pH ranges of 8 and at temperature of 40⁰C suggesting the possibility of using the enzyme in leather, detergent, food tenderization and many such industries. Download
    • Common Deficiencies Observed by Various Regulatory Agencies

      More than 50% of the total number of deficiencies related to the manufacturing sections of the Common Technical Document (CTD). Deficiencies related to API, Management of quality, Investigation of deviations, Corrective and preventive actions, Potential for contamination, Supplier and Contractor Audits, Design and Maintenance of equipment, Data integrity issues, Data manipulation, Manufacturing controls, etc., The number and pattern of deficiencies did not change over time. The most frequent critical deficiencies were related to the specific manufacturing process and the key materials used in particular the API starting materials, impact of the API impurity content. Download
    • Current Scenario in Indian Regulatory Update: September 2015 – December 2015

      India has been a hub for conducting various multi centre trials. The conduct of clinical trials in India has been critically reviewed at national and international platforms. While it is imperative that the number of clinical trials increase, the Government is also trying to ensure that the rights and safety of the subjects are protected and the quality of the trials performed in India improve to international standards. The regulatory guidelines in terms of serious adverse events (SAEs) reporting, informed consent, compensation in case of injury or death in clinical trials have been recently modified. It is essential that now all clinical trials conducted in India should as per the International conference of Harmonization-Good Clinical Practices Guidelines (ICH-GCP) for clinical trials and follow the recently amended Schedule Y of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act. This article provides an insight into the recent changes with respect to the regulations of clinical trials and its impact on the clinical research industry in India. Download
    • Critical Survey on the Guidelines under Recommendation of Child Resistant Packaging for Pharmaceutical Products

      Child resistant packaging is an integral part of packaging industry. In order to reduce the risk of poisoning in children due to accidental ingestion of hazardous chemicals like over – the – counter (OTC) medications, household items, pesticides & automobile chemicals, led the US Congress to pass the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970 under the authorship of US Senator Frank E. Moss (Politician)1. The introduction of child resistant packaging resulted in considerable drop in the rate of poisoning. Guidelines of various countries help in preventing forty to eighty percent of childhood poisoning. The World Health Organization & UNICEF state that Child Resistant Packaging is one of the best documented success in preventing poisoning in children. Download
    • Comparative Study of Allium Cepa, Zingiber Officinale And Allium Sativum for Its Antimicrobial Property

      Antibiotic resistant bacteria are one of the major problems challenging the health care system in general. The antibacterial activity of fresh red and white Allium cepa (Onion) and Zingiber officinale (Ginger), garlic (Allium Sativum) juices against multidrug resistant bacteria viz: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Aerobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaricus pure cultures were investigated using agar well diffusion and agar dilution methods. All the bacteria were susceptible to the fresh garlic and white onion juice with the diameter of zones of inhibition ranging from 1.3cm-5.5cm while the test bacteria were not sensitive to the fresh ginger juice. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (M. I. C.) of garlic were low in ranging from 1.125 – 25 %v/v and that of white onion was 2.125- 50%v/v. This study indicates that the fresh juices of white onion (Allium cepa) and garlic possess significant antibacterial potency against multidrug resistant bacteria. Download
    • Cortical V/S Subcortical Dementias- A Comparative Review of Cognitive Functions

      BACKGROUND: The typical clinical features of AD are indicative of cortical dysfunction which are dyscalculia, dysphasias, dyspraxias and agnosias. Parallel to this, the clinical features of subcortical dementias, mainly reflect the subcortical areas affected which usually are personality changes and affective disorders and bradyphrenia. The neuropsychological deficits are also different in these dementias. In present review we will highlight these neuropsychological differences. METHODOLOGY: A detailed search of all the studies of cortical and subcortical dementias was done in all medical databases. All the studies involving neuropsychological aspects of cortical and subcortical dementias were included in the study. Major categories of neuropsychological aspects were separately categorized and compared between the subcortical and cortical dementias. RESULTS: Major neuropsychological categories identified were 1) Executive functions 2) Memory dysfunctions and 3) Perceptuo-motor dysfunctions. In memory, The differential effects of the test format is that in subcortical dementia the main difficulty is in retrieving information while in cortical dementia encoding or storage (or both) are thought to be defective. On the other hand, the visuo motor dysfunctions are far more severe in subcortical as compared to cortical dementias. Its cardinal features are: forgetfulness, i.e., difficulty in retrieving learned material; slowing of mental and motor processes; intellectual deterioration characterized by impaired ability to manipulate acquired knowledge to generate problem solving; impairment of arousal, attention, and motivation and affective changes (depression); and impairment of set-shifting. DISCUSSION: There are significant differences in various neuropsychological domains of cortical and subcortical dementias. Download
    • Comparative Analysis of Antimicrobial Activity of Three Cephalosporins on Clinical Isolates

      Objective: To compare in-vitro antimicrobial activity of commonly used cephalosporins against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Material and methods: Clinical isolates were obtained from Madonna University Teaching Hospital, Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria, and were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using disc diffusion standard procedure. Result: Ceftriaxone gave the highest zone of inhibition value against Proteus specie (29.70 mm) and E. coli (25.50 mm), as compared to cefuroxime (15.60 mm and 12.00 mm), and Ceftadizime (21.00 mm and 14. 50 mm) respectively. There were however, differences in the zones of inhibition values of the three Cephalosporins with Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions: From the result obtained, ceftiaxone was the most effective antibiotic in inhibiting the growth of the four clinical isolates especially E. coli and Proteus specie, and hence could be used for treatment of resistant organisms where ceftadizime and cefuroxime have failed. Download
    • Chemoprevention of Oral Cancer by Saudi Arabian Propolis: An Overview

      Propolis is a resinous substance collected by worker honeybees from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources. The bees pack propolis on their hind legs, carry it to their colony, and use it as a sterilant & sealant for unwanted open spaces in the hive. It is one of the oldest known therapeutic agents that are used even today in traditional medicines. Saudi Propolis has numerous therapeutic properties like antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, anti-inflammatory etc. Although numerous researchers have been reported the antimicrobial activity of propolis from different countries and geographical regions but information about Saudi Arabian Propolis are still limited. The composition of propolis can vary according to the geographic locations from where the bees obtained the ingredients. Main chemicals constituents of Saudi propolis have been identified as caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and artepillin C, galangin, xanthomicrol, chrysin. CAPE or chrysin are the active ingredients having anti proliferative property. The anti proliferative (anti cancer) effects of CAPE or chrysin in cancer cells are the result of the suppression of complexes of cyclins, as well as cell cycle arrest. The results of in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that CAPE and chrysin may inhibit tumor cell progression and may be useful as potential chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive anti cancer drugs. Oral cancer represents 3rd most common malignancy after lymphoma and leukemia of all cancers in the Saudi Arabia. In addition to high rates of recurrence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma because of frequent formation of second primary tumor in 3% to 7% per year, among the highest for any malignancy. Chemopreventive agents can serve as an appropriate therapy for patients with a premalignant lesion or patients who have had head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Also, excellent candidate of cancer for assessment of chemoprevention is Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral mucosa because lesions are amenable to oral delivery of chemopreventive agents. We assume that either dietary administration or intralesional injection of ’propolis’ would inhibit the occurrence and progression of malignant oral lesions. The effects can be visually monitored during treatment, and modulation or inhibition of genes or gene products involved in oral SCC constitute molecular targets against which chemopreventive approaches can be tested and validated. Download