• Preliminary Phytochemical and Trace metal Screening from Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

      Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp is a perennial legume shrub belong to the family Fabaceae. Its application in respiratory infection, vermifuge properties, anti – ulcer, wound healing, dermatosis, convulsions, hepatoprotective is practised by the villagers. The aim of the present study focussed on the phytochemical constituents and Heavy metal concentration of Ethanolic extract of leaves from Cajanus cajan. The leaves were collected from Tiruchirappalli District, Southern India. The primary metabolites like Chlorophyll content, Carbohydrate, Protein and Lipids were present in the ethanolic extract of leaves. Likewise the secondary metabolites revealed the presence of the bioactive compounds such as Steroids, Sugar, Alkaloids, Phenols, Flavonoids, Tannins, Glycosides and Amino acids. The Trace metal concentrations were analysed from the powdered plant leaves by 797 VA Computrace Voltammetry, Mertrohm. This study will provide referential information of anti-microbial and anti-fouling efficacy of the plant Cajanus cajan. Download
    • Development and Validation of New RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Dasatinib in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

      A simple, precise, accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the estimation of Dasatinib in pharmaceutical dosage forms. An Cosmicsil BDS C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm), 5 µ particle size was used as stationary phase with mobile phase consisting of Phosphate buffer: a mixture of acetonitrile and methanol in the ratio of 50:50, v/v. The flow rate was maintained at 1 mL/min and effluents were monitored at 315 nm. The retention time was 6.4675 min. The linearity of the method was observed in the concentration range of 20-60 µg/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The percentage assay of Dasatinib was 100.10%. The method was validated for its accuracy, precision and system suitability. The results obtained in the study were within the limits of ICH guidelines and hence this method can be used for the estimation of Dasatinib in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Download
    • Cajanus Cajan Mediated Gold Nanoparticle Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial efficacy and its Antifouling Application on Metal Coupons

      The present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AuNPs using Leaf extract of Cajanus cajan and its characterization through UV-Vis Spectrophotometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), DLS – Size Distribution and Zeta potential and biofilm accumulation analysis by Epi – Florescence Microscopy. The ability of the green synthesized Gold Nanoparticles to control/prevent the biofilm forming bacterial communities (which were considered as primary colonizers) was analysed by conducting the antimicrofouling studies. The Gold Nanoparticles were found to control the growth and survival of biofilm forming bacteria effectively on SS304 metal coupons. The present work gives scope for the possible development of formulations containing AuNps as effective antifouling agent that could prevent microfouling, thereby preventing marine biofouling. Download
    • Preliminary Phytochemical and Trace metal Screening from Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

      Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp is a perennial legume shrub belong to the family Fabaceae. Its application in respiratory infection, vermifuge properties, anti – ulcer, wound healing, dermatosis, convulsions, hepatoprotective is practised by the villagers. The aim of the present study focussed on the phytochemical constituents and Heavy metal concentration of Ethanolic extract of leaves from Cajanus cajan. The leaves were collected from Tiruchirappalli District, Southern India. The primary metabolites like Chlorophyll content, Carbohydrate, Protein and Lipids were present in the ethanolic extract of leaves. Likewise the secondary metabolites revealed the presence of the bioactive compounds such as Steroids, Sugar, Alkaloids, Phenols, Flavonoids, Tannins, Glycosides and Amino acids. The Trace metal concentrations were analysed from the powdered plant leaves by 797 VA Computrace Voltammetry, Mertrohm. This study will provide referential information of anti-microbial and anti-fouling efficacy of the plant Cajanus cajan. Download
    • Development and Validation of New RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Dasatinib in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

      A simple, precise, accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the estimation of Dasatinib in pharmaceutical dosage forms. An Cosmicsil BDS C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm), 5 µ particle size was used as stationary phase with mobile phase consisting of Phosphate buffer: a mixture of acetonitrile and methanol in the ratio of 50:50, v/v. The flow rate was maintained at 1 mL/min and effluents were monitored at 315 nm. The retention time was 6.4675 min. The linearity of the method was observed in the concentration range of 20-60 µg/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The percentage assay of Dasatinib was 100.10%. The method was validated for its accuracy, precision and system suitability. The results obtained in the study were within the limits of ICH guidelines and hence this method can be used for the estimation of Dasatinib in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Download
    • Cajanus Cajan Mediated Gold Nanoparticle Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial efficacy and its Antifouling Application on Metal Coupons

      The present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AuNPs using Leaf extract of Cajanus cajan and its characterization through UV-Vis Spectrophotometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), DLS – Size Distribution and Zeta potential and biofilm accumulation analysis by Epi – Florescence Microscopy. The ability of the green synthesized Gold Nanoparticles to control/prevent the biofilm forming bacterial communities (which were considered as primary colonizers) was analysed by conducting the antimicrofouling studies. The Gold Nanoparticles were found to control the growth and survival of biofilm forming bacteria effectively on SS304 metal coupons. The present work gives scope for the possible development of formulations containing AuNps as effective antifouling agent that could prevent microfouling, thereby preventing marine biofouling. Download
    • A Review On Analytical Methods For Determination of Losartan Potassium And Pioglitazone In Different Dosage Form

      Nowadays antihypertensive drugs like Losartan Potassium and Antidiabetic drugs like Pioglitazone represent the first choice in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Losartan Potassium reduced the degree of proteinuria while Pioglitazone act as efficient insulin sensitizers. Generally the Combination of Losartan Potassium and Pioglitazone are used for patients suffering from the diabetes mellitus which leads to end stage renal disease. This article narrates different chromatographic (HPLC, HPTLC, LC) & different Spectrophotometric method (UV) for Statin class single drug as well as combination with other drug. Thus, this paper will help in the selection and development of proper analytical methodologies for estimation of Losartan Potassium and Pioglitazone to achieve satisfactory results. Download
    • Effect of Recent Amendment in Drug & Cosmetic Act in India

      Globally, every country is the victim of substandard or spurious drugs, which result in life threatening issues, financial loss of consumer and manufacturer and loss in trust on health system. The aim of this enumerative review was to probe the extent on poor quality drugs with their consequences on public health and the preventive measures taken by the Indian pharmaceutical regulatory system. For minimizing spurious drugs or not of standard quality drugs, there is requirement of more strict regulation and legal action against the problem. However, India has taken some preventive steps in the country to fight against the poor quality drugs for protecting and promoting the public health. Download
    • Method Development and Validation of Cetirizine hydrochloride, Phenylephrine hydrochloride and Nimesulide by UV and HPLC

      Phenylephrine HCL, Cetirizine HCL and Nimesulide, one of the most commonly prescribed Nasal decongestant, Antihistamine and Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory respectively, In this regard, the research and development of reliable analytical methods for self-determination. It is freely soluble in water, methanol and acetonitrile. Insoluble in acetone. The main aim of present Research work is to develop and validate a method for estimation of Cetirizine HCL, Phenylephrine HCL & Nimesulide by the using of UV visible spectrophotometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Double beam UV –visible spectrophotometer with 10 mm matched quartz cell (Shimadzu -1700) one is sample and other is reference were use for quantitative estimation of Phenylephrine HCL, Cetirizine HCL and Nimesulide. The various trials were carried out by varying parameters. RP-HPLC method for estimation of pharmaceutical dosage form was developed successfully. Chromatographic separation was performed on Phenomenex Gemini C18 stainless steel column with dimension 250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size. The mobile phase consisting of a acetonitrile : water (ph3) 60:40 v/v) was delivered at rate of 1 ml/min. The detection was made at 229 nm. Mobile phase was filtered through a 0.45 μ membrane filter paper and degassed before analysis. Separation was performed at ambient temperature. Download
    • Association Between Tooth Brushing Behaviours And Dental Abrasions Among Residents of A Tribal District in Himachal Pradesh – A Cross Sectional Study

      Aim: To determine an association between tooth brushing behaviours and dental abrasions among residents of a tribal district in Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 550 adults (350 male and 200 female) aged 20 years and above who attended the Regional hospital at Reckongpeo in Tribal district of Kinnaur in the state of Himachal Pradesh. Study format comprises of patient demographic details and information on brushing behaviours. “P" value ≤0.05 was taken as statistically significant whereas ≤ 0.01 was considered as statistically highly significant. Results: In this study statistically significant relationship was observed between abrasive lesions and majority of the factors related to the tooth brushing behaviours. Statistically significant difference was found between abrasions and age wise and gender wise comparison, tooth brushing frequency, changing habits of toothbrushes on fraying of toothbrush bristles. Whereas the association between prevailing dental abrasions and technique and strokes used during tooth brushing was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Keeping in mind an association and impact of brushing behaviour and abrasions dental professionals should make evidence-based recommendations to their patients and general masses. There is a need of demonstration of proper tooth brushing techniques to this group of population and education to modify their brushing behaviours for a sound dental health. Download
    • Development and Evaluation of Niosomal Formulation of Famciclovir

      Niosomes are one of the best and most effective among these carriers system. Because of the presence of hydrophilic, lipophilic and amphiphilic moieties in the structure, these niosomes can accommodate various drug molecules with a wide range of solubility. So, these may act as a depot, releasing the drug in a defined manner. Rationale behind the present study is to improve the oral bioavailability of Famciclovir by preparing niosomes. Encapsulation of Famciclovir in lipophilic vesicular structure may be expected to enhance the dissolution, oral absorption and prolong the existence of the drug in the systemic circulation. The niosomal dispersions were formulated using various combinations of cholesterol and spans. The formulations were evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo and compared with the marketed preparation of Famciclovir. Download
    • TLC, HPTLC Studies and Qualitative Phytochemical Investigations of Seeds of Celastrus Paniculatus Willd

      Phytochemical and Pharmacological studies on Celastrus paniculatus Willd are an interesting field for research due to its possible medicinal values and the importance of the chemical constituents in the similar variety plants. Thus it makes a great significance to investigate the chemical constituents and study the pharmacological activity on this plant for its medicinal uses, which will be very useful in the field of medicine as a new emerging drug. Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, Steroid, Terpenoid, Flavonoids, and Glycoside distribution in medicinal plant belonging to family was assessed and was investigated. The plant was found to contain Alkaloids, Tannins and Flavonoids, Steroids etc. The significance of the plant in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents in this plant was objective of this study. Download
    • Trends in Prostate cancer incidence in Bangalore, India

      Prostate cancer has emerged as the most frequent cancer amongst men in world and also in Asian countries including India, with incidence increasing rapidly over the past two decades. Incidence has been drastically increasing in the all Indian Urban Registries, although in a few Registries with very significant increasing trend (Bangalore, Bhopal, Chennai, Delhi and Kamrup). We analyzed a 25 years Population Based Cancer Registry Data at Kidwai memorial institute of oncology (KMIO) for comparison with other registries used national cancer registry report (NCRP). Material and methods: Prostate cancer cases were drawn from Bangalore population-based cancer registry locating at Kidwai memorial Institute of Oncology started in 1982 under national cancer Registry Programme funded by Indian Council of Medical Research. Time trends in sex- and age-standardised cancer incidence rates were analysed by using statistical tools like Joinpoint and Annual parentage Change (APC) over the study period. Results: Prostate cancer being most emerging site with 157.7 relative percentage change by combining first three years of registry started to recent years. Age-standardised prostate cancer incidence rates increased. A significant increased trend over the study period observed a considerable variability in the magnitude of the annual increase approximately 6.5% in Bangalore from 1996 onwards. Download
    • Development and Validation of HPTLC Densitometric Method for Estimation of Famciclovir in Plasma

      A rapid and reproducible HPTLC Densitometric Method has been developed for estimation of famciclovir in plasma. Chromatography was performed on aluminium plates coated with 200micrometre layers of silica gel, using Butanol: Acetic acid: Water (7:2:1) as the mobile phase. Densitometric scanning was performed at 254nm with Camag TLC Scanner III. Linear least-square regression analysis showed there is a good liner relationship between peak area and concentration. The method was found sufficiently accurate and precise for pharmacokinetic studies of the drug. Download
    • Abuse And Misuse Potential of Commonly Used Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (Nsaids) In Indian Scenario, A Pharmacovigilance Model Study

      Objectives: 1. To find out the incidences and study various aspects of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) in the patients receiving NSAIDs for more than 15 days 2. To test the impact of pharmcovigilance model study in reporting ADR. Setting: 400 subjects on NSAID’s who are on drug treatment for not less than fifteen days Method: Study in patients on NSAID’s therapy, the data was obtained from Physician records, Community Pharmacists and patients by individual interactions using structured format based on the guidelines of CDSCO. Observations: Out of 400 patients 47 cases of ADRs were reported showing following demographic, 17% population consumed NSAID’s for more than one year period, 36% for more than 6 months, 29% for over 3 months and 13% for more than one month and 6 % for more than 15 days. 49% patients did not follow up with the physician and continued the same therapy while 51 % visited their Physician for follow up check up. 20 % patients were given increased per day dosage while 10% got reduced per day dosage and remaining 70% continued on same dosage regimen. ADR cases in fixed dosage combination were 7% while on monotherapy 5%. ADR cases associated with Etoricoxib 1.9%, Diclofenac 2.1%, Aceclofenac 1.5%, Nimuselide 1.1%, Ibuprofen 1.4% and Paracetamol 0.4%. Commonly encountered ADR reported were of Drowsiness, Diarrhea, Gastro intestinal ulcer, Flatulence, elevated hepatic enzymes during LFT and bio chemical changes in KFT. Conclusion: The evaluation of pharmacovigilance study demonstrated that NSAIDs are the most widely prescribed drugs in the management of pain. Monitoring of ADR is an important tool to prevent the damage to a organ system like Gastrointestinal, Renal system and hepatic functions. Fixed dose combinations of NSAIDs are less prescribed defining rationale use of NSAIDs in Indian scenario. Majority of the ADR reported were of mild to moderate in nature and no serious or severe reaction developed after prescribing NSAIDs which is a positive sign. Download