• Drug Utilization Evaluation For Postoperative Patients In Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department In A Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

      A growing number of pharmaceutical products are available in the world market and there has been an increase both in the consumption of the drugs and in expenditure on them. The main aim of the study was to analyze drug use pattern in a post-operative patients in obstetrics and gynaecology ward and to assess the prescribing indicators (WHO: Core Drug Use Indicators). A prospective, concurrent and retrospective observational study was conducted over a period of six months, after getting approval by the Institutional Ethics committee. A well designed patient data collection proforma for collecting the required data from post-operative patients by using chart review method in Obstetrics and Gynaecology ward of a tertiary care teaching hospital. The data was analyzed using descriptive analysis with the help of SPSS software. The results shown are a total of 582 cases were analyzed during the following study period. Out of 582 patients, 559 (96%) were prescribed with parenteral Cefotaxime and Metronidazole. Post-operative pain was managed with Tramadol (87%). All patients were prescribed with an antibacterial agent and analgesic (100%). The percentage of encounters with an injection prescribed was 100% in our study. Out of 19 different drugs prescribed, 16 (84.21%) were from the Essential Medicines WHO Model List (2015) and 10 (52.63%) were prescribed by their generic name. Accordingly, the study can be concluded as it provides valuable insight about the overall pattern of drug used in postoperative patients. The study is useful in decreasing the irrational prescription, which helps to decrease the morbidity and health care burden in the society. Download
    • A Study On Risk Factors And Clinical Presentations Of Ectopic Pregnancy In Women Attending A Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

      Background: Ectopic pregnancy is one of the nightmare and a life threatening condition. The rising incidence of ectopic pregnancy in the past few years is due to a number of risk factors which include pelvic inflammatory disease & availability of better diagnostic techniques. There is increased frequency of ectopic after IVF and related techniques. Tubal pregnancy may be due to factors that retard the passage of fertilized ovum, conditions which increase tubal receptivity and factors intrinsic in the conceptus. Aim: The present study was designed to study the risk factors and clinical prentations of ectopic pregnancy attending to a tertiary care centre. Materials and methods: It was a prospective study on 50 cases of ectopic pregnancy conducted in department of obstetrics and gynaecology, RIMS Medical college and general hospital KADAPA, for a period of 2 years were included. Detailed history suggestive of risk factors for ectopic pregnancy, menstrual and obstetric history was taken. general, systemic, abdominal and vaginal examinations were done. Results and Discussion: A total of 12132 deliveries were confirmed during the study period, of which 50 cases of ectopic pregnancies were diagnosed, giving an incidence of o.41%. 74% were in the age group of 21- 30 years. 90% of women were multigravidae and 10% were primigravidae. 64% of the patients had identifiable risk factors, of which past history of PID in 32%, history of previous abortion in 12%, infertility in 10%, history of previous ectopic pregnancy in 4%, usage of IUCD and OCP in 4% each and tubectomy in 10% were noted. 98% had amenorrhea, followed by pain abdomen in 100%, bleeding PV in 82%, fainting and syncopal attack in 6%% of the patients. Pallor in 90%% of the cases, 6% presented with shock was noted. Percentage of haemoglobin was <7 gms in 68% .ectopic pregnancy presents as ruptured ectopic in 48 cases, and unruptured in 2 cases. Conclusion: Increasing awareness among sexually active women and men regarding safe sexual practices and contraception decrease abortions and reduces the risk of ectopic pregnancy. All high risk women should be screened at the earliest with serum B-hCG and TVS. The impact on future fertility can be improved by focusing on primary prevention and early diagnosis before rupture. Download
    • Nipah Virus (NiV): An Emerging Potential Threat to South East Asia

      Nipah virus is an emerging zoonotic virus that can cause lethal respiratory manifestations and encephalitis. Though originated in Malaysia, scattered infections from nipah virus are found in Thailand, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh and regions of Southeast Asia. Pteropus fruit bats are the natural reservoirs and from them infection can spread to humans and some other animals. This infection can be transmitted from human to other humans as well as from infected pigs to humans. Currently we are at a greater risk of nipah infection due to our limited knowledge, rapid spread, migration activities among people , high case mortality ,inefficient treatment and no vaccines. Diagnosis modalities include ELISA, PCR, immunofluorescence assays and culture of virus. Nipah virus mainly affects respiratory tract causing influenza like symptoms but some patients also present with encephalitis which leads to ultimate death. As the case fatality rate is high and treatment is mainly supportive, prevention plays the main role in controlling infection. Download
    • An Overvıew on Fıxed Dose Combinations

      Fixed dose combinations have become an important alternative to monotherapies in the treatment of diseases as hypertension, diabetes, Helicobacter pylori, AIDS- HIV infections and tuberculosis, asthma and COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) by offering several advantages including patients compliance, simple dosage schedule, superior efficacy and tolerability, reduced risk of adverse events, cheaper shipment & packaging activities. This article covers the advantages and disadvantages of FDC’sas well ascritical issues during evaluation of FDC’s such as Efficacy, Safety, Bioavailability and Stability. Download