• An Insight on the Emerging Regulations for Radiopharmaceuticals by Europe and India

      Radiopharmaceuticals are the radioactive substances or radioactive drugs for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. The formulation of radiopharmaceuticals is different from ordinary pharmaceuticals. Many radiopharmaceuticals are released and administered to patients shortly after their production because radiopharmaceuticals may decompose during process and labeling steps due to variation in environmental conditions, indicating serious stability concerns. So, administrative prerequisites must be taken for the formulation of the radiopharmaceuticals. Radiopharmaceuticals production, unlike conventional pharmaceuticals production, is still raw and processing at a full fledged speed. Hence, implementing the cGMP guidelines which are applicable for the drugs industry is both difficult and expensive. The present article introduces radiopharmaceuticals in an effective and useful way. Herein, the radiopharmaceuticals are described as a trustworthy aid for curing the life threatening diseases. It demonstrates a brief investigation of the guidelines constituted by the regulatory bodies for the radiopharmaceuticals. It emphasizes on understanding the mandatory regulations to be taken for the radiopharmaceuticals in various countries. It includes the regulations framed for radiopharmaceuticals by Europe and India. The present work provides information on the guidelines used by Europe and India for the regulation of radiopharmaceuticals by the special committees. The regulations in Europe are stringent whereas, in several countries, like India, the regulations are still to get illumination. It withholds the names of the guidelines in the world to be alluded for the radiopharmaceuticals and the regulatory bodies responsible for the regulation. Download
    • Antimicrobial Activity of Citrus Fruit Pulp, Whole Citrus Fruit Juice and Silver Nano Particles Synthesized Using Citrus Fruit Pulp

      Citrus fruits are suggested as antimicrobial agents from ancient times. Several microorganism derived antibiotics currently in use to treat a variety of human diseases, but the problem of antibiotic resistance is upcoming rapidly due to various factors. The demand for novel antimicrobial agents from natural resources has been increased worldwide. The present study was carried out to find the antimicrobial activity of pulp juice, whole fruit juice & the combination of citrus fruits (lemon, orange, sweet lime). Antibacterial analysis showed that lemon juice was highly active against all the tested organisms, whereas the orange and sweet lime showed very less & no activity respectively. The combinations of the three citrus juices were active against all the tested organisms but the Gram positive bacteria were more sensitive than Gram negative. The lemon pulp juice also showed a high antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Furthermore, Nanoparticles with antimicrobial property, biosynthesized using different sources are of significance in therapeutic applications of nanotechnology. We also synthesized Silver Nano particles were from fruit pulp juices. It was found that the antibacterial activity of lemon was enhanced whereas orange and sweet lime silver Nano particles were also active against all test organisms. Download
    • Bioanalytical Method Validation: A Quality Assurance Auditor View Point

      In the development of medicinal products, bioanalytical methods are used in clinical and non-clinical pharmacokinetic studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of drugs and their metabolites. Drug concentrations determined in biological samples are used for the assessment of characteristics such as in vivo pharmacokinetics (adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion), bioavailability, bioequivalence, and drug-drug interaction. Bioanalytical methods, based on a variety of physico-chemical and biological techniques such as chromatography, immunoassay and mass spectrometry, must be validated prior to and during use to give confidence in the results generated. It is the process used to establish that a quantitative analytical method is suitable for biomedical applications. Any method developed for the analysis of analytes in biological fluids must yield consistent results despite the variations in conditions during the course of a project. An ideal bioanalytical method should include all of the probable effects that are going to occur during the routine analysis of study samples. The present manuscript focuses on the consistent evaluation of the key bioanalytical validation parameters is discussed accuracy, precision, sensitivity, selectivity, limits ofquantification, range, linearity, ruggedness, robustness, and stability. Some of the proposals were made to the validation procedure to encounter the possible situations in the routine study sample analysis. An attempt has been made to understand and explain the bioanalytical method validation for chromatographic assays from the quality assurance auditor viewpoint. A good understanding of the background and principles of the bioanalytical method validation will help the quality assurance personnel to perform their duties in a most effective and focused manner. Download
    • A Review On 3d Printed Tablets : A Downloadable Medicine

      3Dimensional (3D)-printing is a rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing is a recent innovative technology that manufacture 3D shapes in a layer by layer method directly by computer aided drug design technology. Computer aided drug design(CADD) is an emerging tool for research and drug development process as it reduce the time taken for the process of drug development and expense. In 3D printing successive layers of material are formed under computer control to create an object. It is having high degree of flexibility over controls over the release of drug which is formulated as in different layers of tablets. 3D printing has an exclusive opportunity for the preparation of personalized medication to patient needs. This review deals with the scope of the 3D printing technology, various methods of preparation and regulatory problems with 3D printing pharmaceuticals. Download
    • A Review on Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana): A Medicinal Plant

      Plants are one of the most important source of medicine. Stevia is perennial herb that belongs to Astaraceae family. It is natural sweetener plant & is 300 times sweeter than cane sugar. It is native to Paraguay & Brazil. It is also called as the sweet herb of paraguay. The major constitutes identified were the steviol glycosides. Its nutritional value benefits both the young & old ones. Stevia is belived to have antiglycemic antiseptic antibacterial, antimicrobial, anticancer activity & also be used in stomach upset, indigesion, weight loss, heart burn, etc. It is expected that it will generate hope for diabetic people who have craze to eat sweet. Download
    • Characterization and Optimization of Thermostable Alkaline Protease Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Tannery effluent

      Proteases are being an industrial candidate, which are widely used in bakery, beverages and detergent industry. The leather industry deals with proteinous skin material for the conversion of leather and this generates huge amount of solid and liquid wastes giving rise to pollution that need to be overcome by introducing sustainable cleaner technologies. This study is a search for potential protease producing strain from tannery industry effluent. Different isolates were screened for the ability to produce protease. Then the potential organisms were tested using various biochemical tests, which lead to their identification as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The effects of various environmental factors on the production of protease were studied. The organism showed the maximum growth and enzyme production at pH 8.0 and temperature at 40ºC. The protease enzyme was purified using ammonium sulphate (70%) precipitation. Further purification was done by membrane dialysis. The crude and partially purified protease was preliminary characterized and used for dehairing process and destaining process at lab scale level in which the dialyzed fraction showed comparatively significant effect. The protease obtained from these strains showed good stability and activity in pH ranges of 8 and at temperature of 40⁰C suggesting the possibility of using the enzyme in leather, detergent, food tenderization and many such industries. Download
    • Common Deficiencies Observed by Various Regulatory Agencies

      More than 50% of the total number of deficiencies related to the manufacturing sections of the Common Technical Document (CTD). Deficiencies related to API, Management of quality, Investigation of deviations, Corrective and preventive actions, Potential for contamination, Supplier and Contractor Audits, Design and Maintenance of equipment, Data integrity issues, Data manipulation, Manufacturing controls, etc., The number and pattern of deficiencies did not change over time. The most frequent critical deficiencies were related to the specific manufacturing process and the key materials used in particular the API starting materials, impact of the API impurity content. Download
    • Total Quality Management: The Need of the Hour for Pharmaceutical Industry

      Total quality management play major role starting from initial establishment of a pharmaceutical industry to safe guard the marketed drug. It controls the overall quality system chain of a pharmaceutical product, which is to be purchased and utilized by the public in need.TQM is not un-dimensional approach but is multifaceted in nature. Understanding these facts is essential to promote a successful quality improvement programmed. An integrated approach on all vital components of TQM is required to achieve the desired goal. TQM has been accepted by both service and manufacturing organization, globally as a systemic management approach to meet the competitive challenges. TQM redefines the quality with emphasis on top management commitment and customer satisfactions. Drastic reduction in materials wastage, average saving per year increased and financial losses were minimized, workers were motivated to keep and operate materials with care and prevent wastage, and good team relationship was built among the workman and management. TQM provides the linkage between productivity and quality. The focus of TQM is an Involvement of everyone in organization in continuous improvement, Commitment to satisfy the customers, Participation through teamwork, Commitment and leadership of top management. Download
    • Evaluation of Diuretic Activity of Passiflora Nepalensis in Rats

      This study was conducted to investigate the diuretic potential of aqueous methanolic extract of Passiflora nepalensis in rats. The extract at doses of 10, 30 50 and 100 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally in acute diuretic model. Furosemide (10 mg/kg i.p) was used as standard drug. Total urine volume and urinary excretion of electrolytes were measured. Preliminary phytochemical tests were also performed using standard procedures. The extract exhibited a significant dose dependent diuretic effect at all the doses when compared to control group. Urinary excretion of sodium was significantly increased by the extract while a significant increase in potassium excretion was only observed at higher doses. Phytochemical analysis illustrated that the extract contained compounds such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars. It is conceivable therefore that the aqueous methanolic extract of P. nepalensis contain certain biologically active compounds that might be responsible for the diuretic activity. Download
    • Biological Activity of Pyrimidine Derivatives

      Anti-inflammatory efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been related to their properties as inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. However, recent studies have suggested that variations of the in vivo anti-inflammatory actions among different NSAIDs could not be solely explained by COX inhibition. Here, we have analyzed the effects on T cell activation of novel pyrazole derivatives. Pyrazoles represent a most active classes of compounds possessing a wide spectrum of biological activities. A systematic investigation of this class of heterocyclic lead revealed that pyrazole containing pharmacoactive agents play important role in medicinal chemistry. The prevalence of pyrazole cores in biologically active molecules has stimulated the need for elegant and efficient ways to make these heterocyclic lead. Pyrazole derivatives have a long history of application in agrochemicals and pharmaceutical industry as herbicides and active pharmaceuticals. Download
    • Formulation and Evaluation of Multi-particulate Drug Delivery System of Pepsin Enzyme

      The aim is to develop multi-particulate drug delivery system for pepsin. Multi-particulate systems offer advantage with respect to predictable and even distribution and transportation through GI track. Multi-particulate system can be prepared by various techniques such as agitation, Powder layering, solution layering. In this study, multi-particulate systems of pepsin have been attempted using Lactose and Guar gum as principal excipients. Suitable dough of pepsin with excipients was prepared and pass through sieve # 8.The extrudets were spheronised using spheronizer. Factorial design was applied using speed (RPM) and time for spheronisation as independent variables at three levels. Formulations were evaluated for particle size, % yield, % entrapment efficiency, Disintegration time and In vitro drug release. Relationship between dependent and independent variables was established using design expert 7.0.0. Download
    • Development and Validation of UV Spectrometric and HPLC Method for Estimation of Escitalopram Oxalate and Flupentixol Dihydrochloride in Combined Dosage Form

      Reverse phase High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and UV spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of Escitalopram oxalate and Flupentixol dihydrochloride in combined dosage form. Different analytical performance parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined according to ICH Q2R1 guidelines. The RP-HPLC method was developed by the isocratic technique on a column of Kromasil C8 (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm). The retention time for ESC and Flu was 3.6 min and 5.8 min respectively. The UV spectrophotometric determinations were performed at the zero crossing point (ZCP) of ESP was found to be 238 nm and ZCP of Flu was found to be 229 nm. The linearity of the calibration curves for each analyte in the desired concentration range was good (r2 > 0.999) by both the HPLC and UV methods. The method showed good reproducibility and recovery with percent relative standard deviation less than 2%. Moreover, UV spectroscopy can be a cheap, reliable and less time consuming alternative for chromatographic analysis. The proposed methods are highly sensitive, precise and accurate and hence successfully applied for determining the assay of a Combined dosage form. Download
    • Hazards in Modern Dentistry – A Review

      Despite numerous advances in recent years in the field of dentistry, many occupational health problems still persists. They include stress and professional burnout, allergies from various materials, musculoskeletal disorders and diseases of peripheral nervous system, Percutaneous Exposure Incidents (PEI),biological hazards, hazards due to nitrous oxide and legal hazards. Dental professionals are constantly exposed to a number of specific occupational hazards. In many cases, this exposure results in diseases which are regarded as occupational illnesses. Based on the relevant literature, this review focuses on the occupational hazards in dentistry. Being unaware of the potential hazards in the work environment makes dental personnel vulnerable to occupational injury and illnesses. Awareness of these occupational hazards and implementation of preventive strategies can provide a safe dental environment of all concerned. Download
    • Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Some 2- Substituted Amino Benzothiazole Derivatives

      A series of 2- amino substituted (3a-3g) were synthesized by treating with ammonium thiocynate in the presence of Conc. HCl with different substituted anilines.Structures of all the synthesized compounds were established on melting point, TLC, IR,1H NMR spectral data. In the present study 2-aminobenzothiazole derivatives were prepared from the substituted anilines, in the presence of ammonium thiocyanate and the titled compounds were evaluated for Antibacterial Activity . Download
    • A Study on The Nitric Oxide (NO) Enhancing Ability of A Natural Phytochemical Formulation

      Nitric oxide (NO) has basically dual action in biological systems. Nitric oxide (NO) has basically dual action in biological systems. Nitric oxide plays a crucial role in the vasodilation process. As a result of the vasodilation, the blood flow to the body tissues will be increased, there by influencing the biological actions of the human body. There are many naturally derived phytochemicals which are helpful in the synthesis of nitric oxide. This study report explains the Nitric oxide stimulation activity of a combination of naturally derived phytochemicals. Download
    • Evaluation of Antiproliferative and Antifungal Properties of a Serine Protease Inhibitor in Some Cucurbitaceae Members: A Review

      Plants produce complecx set of biological components that acts as active principles. A complete study of protein components provides an understanding about the complex network and the changes of functions within a system. The plant system contains both useful and harmful sources that can act as medicinal sources. The plant proteins are using from the ancient times but the principle understanding about these sources are arised from the modern times. The plant seed and testa in some Cucurbitaceae members as the medicinal sources in the form of protease inhibitors has been provided in the present study. The plant proteins isolated from seed coat is having good antiproliferative and antifungal properties. As the seeds containing testa is using as the edible sources, there is multiple interlinks in the control of various metabolic diseases like cancer. The protease inhibitors are also having good antifungal properties. Download
    • Winogradsky column and Microbial Metabolic Network Analysis

      The Winogradsky column is mainly constructed to know that how the microbial diversity and ecological relationship between the microorganisms exit in their natural environment. In the present review, by using Winogradsky column the microbial metabolism and its network analysis is investigated. Prokaryotes and Archaea bacteria show great metabolic diversity and these microorganisms keeps our biological world continuous recycling. Different types of organisms are detected in this present study; Winogradsky column forms three layers according to their energy and light requirement. On the top layer majority of the microbes in the water layer were photoautotrophic organisms like cyanobacteria, Algae, and many sheathed bacteria and chemoautotrophs such as Beggiatoa and Thiobacillus sulfur oxidizing bacteria are dominant on surface but the ratio decreases as in the lower layers .Further, the next gradient promote aerobic chemoheterotrophic bacteria are more in number in the higher or middle layer of the column when compared to bottom –green and purple sulfur phototrophic bacteria like Rhodhospirilum, Rhodhomicrobium, Rhodhopseudomonas and anaerobic Chlorobium are found in the microbial population. In the oxygen depleted zone or bottom layer anaerobic chemoheterotrophic or sulphur reducing bacteria are found more dominant such as Desulfovibrio and clostridium are mostly found. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA v7 Software. Download
    • Rationale Drug Use In Two Hospitals In Khartoum State Is There A Role For Clinical Pharmacists

      This is a prospective, observational hospital study set out to assess the need for a clinical pharmacist within the hospital. The study was conducted in two hospitals in Khartoum state, Hospital 1 and Hospital 2 during a period of 30 days. The data collected was questionnaire based from all patients attending the Medicine and Paediatric ward (n=140) in the two hospitals, consultants (n=3), registrars (n=3), housemen (n=35) and nurses (n=30). The data was analysed using statistical package of social science (SPSS) computer programme. The investigation examined the major drug use aspects with particular emphasis on the components of drug supply, storage, prescribing, dispensing and treatment monitoring. The overall results from the two hospitals were fairly in good agreement that have warranted justifiably the grounds to reach the following findings; • The main prescribers of drugs in hospitals are the housemen doctors • Lack of adequate awareness of doctors of what drugs their patients are taking or currently using. (As indicated by the discrepancy between the number on record sheet and that directly observation). • All aspects of drug use are handled by co patients. • Advice on dosage regimen aspects as well as side effects to patients was often lacking. This finding are very much indicative of the need to ensure rational medication use in its broad meaning, and area well within the role and responsibilities of a clinical pharmacist as judged by today’s globally established definition of clinical pharmacy ‘ the area of pharmacy concerned with the science and practice of rational medication use’. Download
    • Osmotic Controlled Drug Delivery Systems: An Overview

      Osmotic controlled drug delivery systems utilize the principles of osmotic pressure for the controlled delivery of active agent. The delivery rate of zero-order is achievable with these systems. The release rate from these systems is highly predictable and can be programmed by modulating the release control parameters. The drug release from these systems is independent of gastric pH and hydrodynamic conditions. A high degree of in vivo-in vitro correlation (IVIVC) is obtained with osmotically controlled drug delivery systems. In this review various types of osmotic systems, basic components, patent literature and commercially marketed osmotic drug delivery systems are discussed. Download
    • Sachet Formulation of Taste Masked Antibiotic Drug For Pediatrics Use

      The major problem of bitter drug is to restrict greatly the further development of oral preparations and clinical application of these drugs. The current study was aimed to prepare taste masked granules by using fluidized bed processor (Miniquest F). In this study ciprofloxacin HCl along with HPMC (6cps), Aspartame (6%) and flavour (0.6%) was granulated and passed through sieve no.30# to get optimized size of granules. The key variables were identified as spray rate, inlet temp, atomization air pressure & air flow in fluidized bed processor to obtain required size of granules. Air flow range for the process was decided on the basis of fluidization of API (0.7-0.9 bar) used. Ciprofloxacin being a poorly fluidized drug air flow was kept at 0.7-0.9 bar. The obtained granules were coated with different taste masking polymers vizEudragit EPO (70%) &Eudragit L100 (40%&30%). Complete taste masking was observed with Eudragit L100 (40%). The coated granules were then evaluated for its micromeritic properties, taste masking &in-vitro dissolution. The coated ciprofloxacin granules were filled in a sachet manually along with other excipients to make a unit dose weight of 1 gm. Download
    • Ayurveda Medicinal Plants for Treatment of Diabetes in Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur Region - A Review

      Diabetes is a chronic disease which is affecting worldwide rapidly and number of people affected increasing gradually. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where a person has excessive rise in blood glucose level because it may be due to the cells which do not respond to insulin that is produced in the body or body does not produce required insulin so that prevents body to utilise glucose. As diabetes cannot be cured completely with allopathic medicines hence ayurvedic medicinal plants are commonly used for treatment of diabetes which does not have any side effects. There are several plants used for treatment of diabetes, these are nearly about 800 plants that are having medicinal value and show Anti-Diabetic potential. The lists of common medicinal plants which are used in the treatment of diabetes are as follows: Azadirachta indica, Ficus religiosa, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, Aloevera, Trigonella Foenum-graecum, Cinamomum cassia and Camellia sinesis. The present article gives detailed information about the various medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes which will also help in future studies. Download
    • Outcome of Liver Transplantation in Indian Patients

      The liver is self-regenerative organ. Liver can regenerate in weeks or month to its original volume. Even a large part of liver can be removed from donor then remaining part of liver is sufficient to perform the metabolic need of the patients. Therefore, a healthy person can donate part of his/her liver for LT. In India many children’s need the Liver transplant were referred are very late stage. After that also the socio economic condition and lack of donor are the two important factors in the transplantation. The study had aim to focus on the background of liver transplant in India. Also the critical observation after the liver transplantation is reported. The observation of the children’s liver transplant observed are the bile leak, acute rejection, venos thrombosis, hypertension and bacterial sepsis. Download
    • Biomarkers In Alcoholic Liver Disease

      Extreme alcohol ingesting is a major health problem in the universal leading to both severe morbidity and mortality. Prolonged and undue alcohol ingestion is one of the major causes of Liver diseases. Alcohol is considered as a direct hepatotoxin. Progressive firosis and cirrhosis, clinically presenting as end-stage liver disease are common outcomes in alcoholic Liver disease patients. The aim of this study is to identify potential novel biomarkers for progression of cirrhosis to end-stage liver cirrhosis. The different subjects were evaluated based in the age group. Blood samples were analysed for the analysis of different enzymatic levels. The urea, creatinine, albumin, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) are observed for the any rise or decline in it. The alcohol is responsible for abnormal haematological, renal and liver chemistries. Download
    • Critical Survey on the Guidelines under Recommendation of Child Resistant Packaging for Pharmaceutical Products

      Child resistant packaging is an integral part of packaging industry. In order to reduce the risk of poisoning in children due to accidental ingestion of hazardous chemicals like over – the – counter (OTC) medications, household items, pesticides & automobile chemicals, led the US Congress to pass the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970 under the authorship of US Senator Frank E. Moss (Politician)1. The introduction of child resistant packaging resulted in considerable drop in the rate of poisoning. Guidelines of various countries help in preventing forty to eighty percent of childhood poisoning. The World Health Organization & UNICEF state that Child Resistant Packaging is one of the best documented success in preventing poisoning in children. Download
    • Preparation and Evaluation of Floating Microspheres of Antihypertensive Drug

      In the present study, the attempt have been made to develop GRDDS by using ethyl cellulose and HPMC as release retarding material by solvent evaporation technique. The microspheres were prepared by using different concentrations of polymers individually as well as in combination of both the polymers. The compatibility study of drug and polymer was carried out by IR, DSC analysis. The prepared microspheres were characterized for drug content, percentage yiled, particle size analysis surface morphology and % buoyancy. It was observed that increase in the concentration of polymer, there is increase in the entrapment efficiency. The effect of polymer concentration on the in vitro release of the telmisartan from microspheres was also studied. It can be seen that increase in the polymer concentration, decreases the rate of drug release dramatically. It is observed that the microspheres containing both the polymers i.e. EC and HPMC showed best results. Download
    • Comparative Analysis of Antimicrobial Activity of Three Cephalosporins on Clinical Isolates

      Objective: To compare in-vitro antimicrobial activity of commonly used cephalosporins against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Material and methods: Clinical isolates were obtained from Madonna University Teaching Hospital, Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria, and were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using disc diffusion standard procedure. Result: Ceftriaxone gave the highest zone of inhibition value against Proteus specie (29.70 mm) and E. coli (25.50 mm), as compared to cefuroxime (15.60 mm and 12.00 mm), and Ceftadizime (21.00 mm and 14. 50 mm) respectively. There were however, differences in the zones of inhibition values of the three Cephalosporins with Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions: From the result obtained, ceftiaxone was the most effective antibiotic in inhibiting the growth of the four clinical isolates especially E. coli and Proteus specie, and hence could be used for treatment of resistant organisms where ceftadizime and cefuroxime have failed. Download
    • A Pilot Cross-Over Study to Assess the Human Bio Availability of “Cureit” A Bio Available Curcumin in Complete Natural Matrix

      Curcumin is a safe, effective and potential compound, finds its application as an ingredient for foods and medicines. In order to be effective as a medicine, it has to be more bio available than usual forms. Even though the concentration by composition is increased, it cannot be absorbed to the body- but, some formulations can. Curcumin is found to have potential benefits on treatment and prevention of several diseases. But, the low bioavailability makes a barrier for its use. Cureit, a novel bio available Curcumin formulation, have developed naturally, of which, bioavailability is compared with that of normal Curcumin. It is found to be >10 fold more bio available than the normal Curcumin. Download
    • Study of Relationship between Blood Groups and Ischemic Heart Disease in Patients with Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery of Mazandaran Heart Center in Sari, 2012

      Ischemic heart disease is the most common cause of mortality in the developing countries. In Iran 15 million from 70 million people suffer from cardiovascular disease. The most important risk factors are age; male sex; family history; hyperlipidemia; hypertension; diabete mellitus; obesity and smoking. Blood group was studied as a risk factor for many diseases like peptic ulcer, carcinoma of stomach, periodontal diseases and diabetes mellitus. With the background of conflicting results, the present study was done to evaluate association of ABO blood groups and Rh with IHD in our setting. This analytic comparative study was done at the department of Cardiology, Mazandaran Heart Center Sari .Total 1020 persons were included in the study. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 16. ANOVA and Chi-square tests for significance were used. P-value less than 0.05 was taken as significant. There is not any association between ABO blood groups and Rh with ischemic heart disease (IHD) in our setting. But this study, showed definite higher family history risk factor with Rh positive blood groups. Download
    • A Short Review on the Medicinal Properties of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract Powder

      Moringa Oleifera, also known as Tree of life ,clarifier tree, Miracle tree, horseradish tree and drumstick tree, Many refer to this tree as "nutritional dynamite,“ as it contains enormous amounts of important nutrients like iron, calcium and Vitamin A. The leaf extract of Moringa poses many valuable pharmacological properties. The leaf extract possess many valuable health benefits also. This review focuses the potential of using Moringa Oleifera leaf extract powder in treating male sexual dysfunctions. Download
    • Phytochemical Studies and Safety Evaluation of Terminalia pallida Roots and Boswelia ovalifoliolata Roots

      Terminalia pallida brandis and Boswellia ovalifoliolata are most commonly found plants in the south India. Methanolic and n-Hexane extract of Terminalia pallida roots and Boswellia ovalifoliolata roots were analysed for photochemical studies and acute toxicity study. Safety evaluation of both the plants in both the extracts is essential for the evaluation of any pharmacological activity. Present study clarifies path for pharmaceutical investigation of Terminalia pallida roots and Boswellia ovalifoliolata roots in methanolic and n-Hexane extract. Download
    • Simultaneous Estimation of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole in Combined Dosage Form by UV-Spectrophotometric Methods

      Two simple, precise and accurate derivative spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. Method A is Area Under Curve method, which involved the measurement of area between 252 to 260 nm and 248 to 260 nm for the estimation of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole respectively. Method B applied Zero order derivative spectrophotometry, which involved measuring the absorbance values at 256 nm and 254 nm of Zero derivative spectrum, without mutual interference with a linearity range of 2-10µg/mL and 2-10µg/mL for the estimation of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole, respectively for both the methods. Results of analysis were statistically reported and were found to be satisfactory. Download
    • Recent Trends of Nanotechnology In Drug Delivery And Their Application-An Overview

      Controlled drug delivery systems (DDS) have several advantages compared to the traditional dosage forms. From the last few decades, there has been a considerable research on the basis of Novel drug delivery system, using particulate drug delivery systems as such drug carriers for small and large molecules. Nanoparticles, Liposomes, Microspheres, Niosomes, Pronisomes, Ethosomes, and Pro-liposomes have been used as drug carrier in vesicle drug delivery system. Various polymers have been used in the formation of Nanocarriers. Nanocarriers are colloidal particulate systems with size ranging between 10-1000 nm. This are used for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of various diseases and physical approach to alter and improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of various types of drug molecules. Controlled and targeted delivery is one of the most valuable requirements from a carrier, which involves multi-disciplinary site specific or targeted approach. Nanoparticulate drug delivery system may offer plenty of advantages over conventional dosage forms, which includes improved efficacy, reduced toxicity, enhanced biodistribution and improved patient compliance. Download
    • Formulation and Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Pellets of Antiviral Drug Lamivudine

      The objective of the study was to develop sustained release matrix pellets of Lamivudine, using various viscosity grades of hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose as retardant polymers The pellets were prepared by extrusion spheronization technique. The pellets were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, compressibility index and hausners ratio and in vitro drug release studies. The pellets showed satisfactory flow properties, compressibility. The results of in vitro dissolution studies indicated that formulation F8 is the most successful formulation of the study and exhibited highest drug release in the initial hours and the total release pattern was very close to the theoretical release profile of pellets. The rate of drug release decreased with increased polymer concentration. It was found that HPMC viscosity had a significant impact on the drug release from the prepared sustained release matrix pellets. The decrease in the release rate was observed with an increase in the polymeric system.Plastizer concentration also affect the sphericity of pellets and also affect the release rate. Thus, sustained release matrix pellets of Lamivudine using polymers were successfully formulated, evaluated. Download
    • Use of Anti Hypertensive Drugs In Patients of Diabetes

      Hypertension is extremely prevalent in patients with diabetes. Our objective is to evaluate utilization pattern of antihypertensive agents among diabetic patients with hypertension. All the major classes of antihypertensives can be used in diabetic patients, but the beta-blockers with thiazide diuretics have metabolic side-effects which make them less appropriate as first line agents. The use of ACE inhibitors and calcium antagonists have better metabolic profiles and the latter reduce insulin resistance. Although ACE inhibitors and calcium antagonists are suitable as first line antihypertensives drugs used in diabetics evidence is lacking that these drugs reduce morbidity and mortality over and above that seen with other antihypertensives. Our study was data based comprising of 200 patients. Out of 200 patients 131 were with hypertension and 66 consisted of diabetes and hypertension, and 3 patients were with hypertension along with any other disease. The majority of patients were on multidrug regimens. According to our study a large proportion of patients received ACEIs and CCBs. Patterns of antihypertensive therapy were generally consistent with evidence- based practice guidelines. Download
    • A Short Review on the Medicinal Properties of Chlorophyll Juice

      Plant products are of increasing interest in the search for new nutraceutical ingredients and natural medicines in the treatment of disease; and the discovery of new alternatives to existing antibiotics is an important area of this research due to pathogen resistance. One example of a plant product currently under pharmacological and medicinal investigation is chlorophyll juice. The purpose of this study is to review the nutritional and medicinal values of chlorophyll juice. Download
    • Antioxidant Potential of Leucas Aspera and Cassia Tora Roots

      Antioxidants are the substances that may protect our cells against the effects of free radicals. Free radicals may be defined as chemical species associated with an odd or unpaired electron. Cell damage caused by free radicals appears to be a major contributor to aging and degenerative diseases of aging such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, immune system decline, liver diseases, diabetes mellitus, inflammation, renal failure, brain dysfunction and stress among others. Leucas aspera is a used orally as stimulant, anthelmintic, laxative, diaphoretic, for the treatment of headache, asthma, and bronchitis. The decoction of roots, stem of Leucas aspera is used orally for high fevers, for influenza, and for malarial fevers. Cassia tora commonly is used as tonic, carminative and stimulant. According to Ayurveda the leaves and seeds are acrid, laxative, antiperiodic, anthelmintic, ophthalmic, liver tonic, cardiotonic and expectorant. This study was aimed to evaluation of anti-oxidant potential of the roots of Leucas aspera and Cassia tora Download
    • Rationale Drug Use In Two Hospitals In Khartoum State: Is There A Role For Clinical Pharmacists?

      This is a prospective, observational hospital study set out to assess the need for a clinical pharmacist within the hospital. The study was conducted in two hospitals in Khartoum state, Hospital 1 and Hospital 2 during a period of 30 days. The data collected was questionnaire based from all patients attending the Medicine and Paediatric ward (n=140) in the two hospitals, consultants (n=3), registrars (n=3), housemen (n=35) and nurses (n=30). The data was analysed using statistical package of social science (SPSS) computer programme. The investigation examined the major drug use aspects with particular emphasis on the components of drug supply, storage, prescribing, dispensing and treatment monitoring. The overall results from the two hospitals were fairly in good agreement that have warranted justifiably the grounds to reach the following findings; • The main prescribers of drugs in hospitals are the housemen doctors • Lack of adequate awareness of doctors of what drugs their patients are taking or currently using. (As indicated by the discrepancy between the number on record sheet and that directly observation). • All aspects of drug use are handled by co patients. • Advice on dosage regimen aspects as well as side effects to patients was often lacking. This finding are very much indicative of the need to ensure rational medication use in its broad meaning, and area well within the role and responsibilities of a clinical pharmacist as judged by today’s globally established definition of clinical pharmacy ‘ the area of pharmacy concerned with the science and practice of rational medication use’. Download
    • Validation and Development of New RpHPLC Methods of Levosulphiride Pellets

      A simple, economic, selective, precise, Reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography method for analysis of levosulphride pellets 40%, was developed and validated according to ICH guidelines. The quantification of the drug was carried out using grace smart, 250mm × 4.6mm × 5μm or its equivalent in isocratic mode, with mobile phase compressing of Buffer : Acetonitrile (70:30) The flow rate was 0.8ml/min and the detection was carried out by PDA detector i.e., 237 nm. The retention time for levosulphride pellets was found to be 2.3 min. The percent assay was found to be 98.98%. The method of levosulphride pellets validated for precision, accuracy, linearity range, specificity and robustness. Download
    • Novel Approach of Treatment for Beta Blocker and Calcium Channel Blocker Toxicity, a High Dose Insulin Therapy

      Poison-induced cardiogenic shock (PICS) as a result of beta-blocker (β-blocker) or calcium channel blocker (CCB) overdose is a common and highly life-threatening condition. Conventional therapies, including fluid resuscitation, atropine, cardiac pacing, calcium, glucagon, and vasopressors often fail to improve hemodynamic status. High-dose insulin (HDI) is an emerging theraphy for PICS. In this article, we discuss the existing literature and highlight the therapeutic success and potential of HDI. Based on the current literature, which is limited primarily to case series and animal models, the authors conclude that HDI can be effective in restoring hemodynamic stability, and recommend considering its use in patients with PICS that is not responsive to traditional therapies. Future studies should be undertaken to determine the optimal dose and duration of therapy for HDI in PIC. Download
    • Beta Cell Regeneration and Recent Targets for Beta Cell Regeneration

      Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. High amount of glucose in blood e.g: after a meal(carbohydrates, proteins,and fats), triggers the release of the insulin hormone from beta cells of the pancreas. Human pancreas is composed of an exocrine and an endocrine part, containing the islets of Langerhans(group of cells), which play a role in maintaining the appropriate level of sugars, proteins, and lipids.The agents that may induce formation of new b cells in humans includes the following:Gastrin and epidermal growth factor,Incretins, especially glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP IV) antagonists,Islet neogenesis associated protein (INGAP) and its human equivalent, human proislet peptide (HIP). Download
    • Novel UV Spectrophotometric Determination of Rabeprazole Sodium In Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

      Rabeprazole (RBZ) sodium is a substituted benzimidazole that inhibits gastric acid secretion and used for the treatment of erosive or ulcerative GERD, DU and hypersecretory syndromes including ZES. In present work, a simple, sensitive, accurate and economical spectroscopic method has been developed for the estimation of Rabeprazole in Bulk and its pharmaceutical dosage forms. An absorption maximum was found to be at 292 nm with the solvent system 0.05N NaOH. The drug follows Beer law in the range of 2-18 μg/ml with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The percentage recovery of Rabeprazole ranged from 99.8 to 100.2 % in pharmaceuticaldosage form. Results of the analysis were validated for accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ and were found to be satisfactory. The proposed method is simple, rapid and suitable for the routine quality control analysis. Download
    • An Antioxidant and Bioactive Compound Studies of Parmelia Perlata, Ganoderma Lucidum And Phellinus Igniarius-Supplimentory Drug

      Medicinal mushrooms and lichens have been a great demand for their medicinal property and for food supplements. For this study, three extracts have been taken such as Parmelia perlata, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus igniarius; the solvents used for the extraction is aqueous and ethanol. The objective of the work is to qualitative and quantitative analysis of mechanical and nutritional analysis. In vitro analysis of antioxidants and free radical scavenging assay also were done. All the extracts show virtuous amount of bioactive compounds, appreciable amounts of antioxidant compounds and also good free radical scavenging effect against different radicals. This shows a good source for developing a medicinal drug. Download
    • The Blood-Brain Barrier: Implications For Chemotherapy And Its Delivery To The Brain In Primary And Metastatic Brain Tumor, A Novel Approach

      Nearly 12.5 million new cancer cases are diagnosed worldwide each year. Although new treatments have been developed, most new anticancer drugs that are effective outside the brain have failed in clinical trials against brain tumors, in part due to poor penetration across the BBB and the blood–brain tumor barrier. Conventional treatment using radiation and intravenous chemotherapy often prove unsuccessful primarily because the anticancer drugs fail to cross the BBB in sufficient quantities. The focus is now on targeted drug therapy by not only supplementing conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but also by preventing toxicity in normal tissues and drug resistance.Hence this work aims to investigate the therapeutic regimen of primary and metastatic brain tumors and drugs that fail to cross the BBB in sufficient quantities through conventional treatment and a novel approach for the delivery of these drugs. A total number of 30 patients were enrolled from 5 different hospitals of Karachi. Each prescription was scrutinized and the treatment line was noted down. The treatment strategy was the main highlight of this study as to what was planned for the patient to get the most effective result. Download
    • Microbial Effects and Approaches on Biodegradation of Polyethylene: A Review

      With its increasing demand in human life, the enormous production of polyethylene leads to their huge accumulation in the environment. They are durable and very stable in nature and remain inert to degradation and deterioration. This review focuses on various microbial effects and approaches on biodegradation of polyethylene. On basis of available literatures on biodegradation of polyethylene, this review attempts to cover the sources of polyethylene degrading microbes, mechanisms of degradation, cost effective methods and experiments as well as various analytical techniques to determine the biodegradation. It also concludes with some future aspects and idea on potentially viable methods to reduce the impacts of polyethylene waste on the environment. Download
    • Anti Oxidant Potential of “Cureit”- A Novel Bio Available Curcumin Formulation

      The major impediment towards the use of Curcumin for health benefits is its poor availability in the blood and tissues. This problem can be trounced by our innovative Curcumin preparation. The formulation treats curcumin as it occur inside the turmeric rhizome, where curcumin is more available in the blood. A human study conducted, where the innovative curcumin found to absorb ~15 times more as that of the normal curcumin. This Bio available curcumin was branded as “cureit” and its anti oxidant potential established. The study proves that “cureit” could be good source of natural antioxidant. Download
    • Evaluation of Anti Leishmanial Activities of Withania Somnifera and Solanum Nigrum A Preliminary Study

      This work deals with the study of anti leishmanial activities of plant abstracts that have been evaluated for possible anti leishmanial activities using MTT Assay. In vitro inhibition was observed with chloroform growth and a similar inhibition was obtained with aqueous extract of s.nigrum and all other extracts exhibiting significant toxicity. Promastigotes of L. donovani strain AG83 were routinely cultured at 24OC in M199 medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, 100 U penicillin/ml and 100 µg streptomycin/ml. The IC50 of Pentamidine was found to be 38g/ml while that for w.somnifera and s.nigrum found to be 50g/ml and 58g/ml respectively. This paper records one of the effective measures of cure of the deadly disease by medicinal plants solanum nigrum and withania somnifera against the recent drug pentamidine . Download