• Formulation, Development and Characterization of Chronotherapeutic Time Released Press Coated Nizatidine Tablets

      The aim of present study was to develop and characterize pulsatile release tablets of Nizatidine, H2 antagonist, for effective treatment of Peptic ulcer. The pulsatile tablets prepared by compression coating method consisted of two different parts: a core tablet, containing the active ingredient and an erodible outer coating layer of polymer. The rapid release core tablets were prepared by using superdisintegrant along with active ingredient. Compression coating of optimized core tablets was done by using HPMC K100M and Ethyl Cellulose. The effect of formulation composition on the barrier layer comprising both polymers, excipients on the lag time of drug release was investigated. The Core tablets and press coated tablets were evaluated for weight variation test, thickness, hardness, friability, Disintegration, lag time and dissolution study. An increase in lag time was observed with the increasing concentration in each case. Formulation F4 containing HPMC K100M and Ethyl Cellulose was found to provide desired lag time, drug release profile, better integrity among all formulations and thus, compliant with the chronotherapeutic objective of Peptic Ulcer. Download
    • Validated High Performance liquid Chromatographic Method for Estimation of Thiocolchicoside, and its Application to Ex-vivo Permeation Studies for Transdermal Therapeutic Systems

      A simple, accurate and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for estimation of thiocolchicoside (THC) in skin permeated samples was developed and validated. The chromatographic separation was accomplished on a C 18 column (Inertsil ODS 3V C-18, 250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µ )using a mixture of Buffer: Methanol (45:55) as mobile phase. The flow rate was fixed at 1.5 mL/min. The linearity range for the proposed method was 0.25-50µg/mL. Photodiode array detector was set at a wavelength of 264nm to monitor the elution. The LOD and LOQ for thiocolchicoside were 0.05µg/mL and 0.125µg/mL respectively. The correlation coefficient (‘r’2) values were found to be >0.996 and % RSD values for intra-day and inter-day were found to be less than 10%. The method was validated for linearity, specificity, accuracy, precision, robustness, LOD and LOQ as per ICH guidelines and was suitable for estimation of thiocolchicoside in ex-vivo skin diffusate samples and transdermal patches. Download
    • Development and Validation RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Valsartan and Nifedipine in Synthetic Mixture

      A simple, specific and accurate Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Valsartan and Nifedipine in Synthetic Mixture. The using Phenomenex Luna C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column in Isocratic mode, with Mobile Phase containing Methanol: Water: ACN (pH 3.7 adjusted with 10% Ortho Phosphoric Acid) (70:25:05 %v/v/v). The Flow Rate was 1 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 233 nm. The Retention Time of Valsartan and Nifedipine were found to be 8.003 min and 5.290 min respectively. The Linearity for Valsartan and Nifedipine were found to be 4-20 µg/ml and 1.5-7.5 µg/ml respectively. The Recoveries of Valsartan and Nifedipine were found to be 99.50% – 100.15% and 99.33% – 100.40% respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied for the estimation of Valsartan and Nifedipine in Synthetic Mixture. Download
    • A Comparative Study of Marketing Conditions and Labelling Requirements for Homeopathic Drug in US, Europe and India

      India is the country which exporting the homeopathic drug product to the foreign countries like USA, Germany and United Kingdom. 90-95% of homeopathic products are exported to Germany from India. Since 1992-93, Indian Homeopathic product is increasing for USA. India also exports to the developing countries like Russia Ukraine and Sri lanka. For Sri lanka export is increasing since 1992-93. The OTC homeopathic drug products in US the established annual sales are around $ 75 million and exploring up to 15-20% annually. The Federal, Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act standardize as official drugs and its standard in Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of United State (HPUS) and its supplements. According to article 1of Directive 92/73/EC of homeopathic medicinal product means any medicinal product formulated products or substances or composition known as homeopathic stocks according to homeopathic manufacturing process stated in European pharmacopoeia or in absence pharmacopoeia available and currently used in official member states. Central Council for Research in Homeopathy (CCRH) was built up as an independent association in 1978, under the Dept. of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and Govt. of India. The National Institute of Homeopathy (NIH) in Kolkata as a self-governing association under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Download
    • Sustained Release Drug Delivery System: A Modern Formulation Approach

      Sustained release dosage forms are designed to release a drug at a predetermined rate by maintaining a constant drug level for a specific period of time with minimum side effects. In the recent years, focus on the development of controlled release drug delivery systems has increased. The basic rationale of controlled release drug delivery system optimizes the biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of a drug in such a way that its utility is maximized, side-effects are reduced and cure or control of the condition is achieved, in the shortest possible time by using smallest quantity of drug administered by the most suitable route. There are several advantages of sustained release drug delivery over conventional dosage forms like improved patient compliance due to less frequent drug administration, reduction of fluctuation in steady-state drug levels, maximum utilization of the drug, increased safety margin of potent drug, reduction in healthcare costs through improved therapy, shorter treatment period and less frequency of dosing can be achieved. This review briefly emphasizes about the sustained release drug delivery system characteristics, formulation design and drug release mechanisms. Download
    • Method Development and Validation of Milnacipran by using RP-HPLC Method

      A rapid and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the validated of Milnacipran, in its pure form as well as in capsule dosage form. Chromatography was carried out on a phenomanix C18 (4.6 x 250mm, 5µm) column using a mixture of Acetonitrile: Triethylamine buffer pH 4.5(65:35% v/v)as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8ml/min, the detection was carried out at 215 nm. The retention time of the Milnacipran was 2.16 min respectively. The method produce linear responses in the concentration range 5-25 mg/ml of Milnacipran. The method precision for the determination of assay was below 2.0% RSD. The method is useful in the analysis of bulk and pharmaceutical formulations of Millancipran. Download
    • Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Gel Containing Psidium Guajava Linn Leaves Extract

      Objective- In the present study an attempt was made to formulate gel containing Psidium guajava linn extracts and was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against different microorganism. Method- The plant were collected and extracted with suitable solvent. Different gels were formulated by using different concentration of extracts. The evaluation was done using Agar well diffusion method. The gel formulation was designed by using Carbopol 940, Psidium guajava linn extract, Propylene glycol 400, Methyl paraben, Propyl paraben and required amount of distilled water. Then skin pH (6.8-7) was maintained by drop wise addition of tri-ethanolamine. Result- The physiochemical parameters of formulations (pH, viscosity, spreadability etc.) were determined. The herbal gel showed that formulation containing Psidium guajava linn extract have better Antimicrobial activity. Conclusion- Our literature survey revealed that the herbal gel of leaves extract from leaves of Psidium guajava linn was not investigated in the present study. Download
    • Formulation Strategies to Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Cancer

      Cancer is the uncontrolled and abnormal cell death that affects millions of people. Various cytotoxic agents are used to treat cancer like taxanes and anthracyclines, but the toxicity and drug resistance against the cancerous cell will produce troublesome which hinders chemotherapy efficacy. Drug resistance is basically associated with increased expression of MDR1 gene that encodes for drug efflux pump known as P-glycoprotein which leads to Multidrug resistance; so to overcome the MDR , various therapeutic agents in combination have become the primary strategy to treat drug resistant cancer, but these combination regimens will lack uniform pharmacokinetic profile results in inconsistent drug uptake leads to poor and erratic bioavailability. Various nanoformulation strategies such as dendrimers, liposomes, Vitamin E based nanomedicines, polymeric nanoparticles, micelles and drug polymer conjugates are emerged as an effective drug delivery system for treatment of drug resistant cancer cells which overcome MDR and improves chemotherapy efficacy. Current review highlighting various formulation strategies to overcome MDR by inhibiting ATP dependent membrane efflux pumps through various mechanisms. Download
    • Analytical Techniques by Mass spectrophotometry for the Estimation of Mirtazapinein Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: A Review

      Mirtazapine (MRZ) has a piperazinoazepine structure1,2,3,4,10,14b-hexahydro-2- methylpyrazino [2,1-a]-pyrido [2,3-c][2] benzazepine}. It belongs to the class of noradrenergic and specific serotonergic inhibitor antidepressants (NaSSA). MRZ increases the central noradrenergic an serotonergic activity by blocking α2 adrenergic receptors. MRZ also acts as an antagonist of postsynaptic serotonin type 2 (5-HT2) and type 3 (5-HT3) drug has a different mechanism compared to most of the second generation antidepressants, and it is used to treat generalized anxiety , obsessive–compulsive , and post traumatic stress disorders . It has a high affinity for histamine H1 receptors: Literature survey reveals that Mirtazapine is estimated by Mass spectrometry. Download
    • Development and Validation of a RP- HPLC Method for Quantitation of Oxcarbazepine in Tablet Dosage Form

      A novel, accurate and precise HPLC method for determination of oxcarbazepine has been developed and validated. Separation was achieved on X Terra C18 column (50 x 4.6 mm internal diameter and 5μm particle size) using Ammonium Bicarbonate and Acetonitrile as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min and photo diode array detection at 214nm. The developed method was applied for quantitative determination of above drugs in tablet dosage forms and the method was validated with respect to specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy, system suitability, robustness and solution stability. The method was linear over the range of 50-300ug/ml for Oxcarbazepine respectively. The mean recovery was found to be in the range of 99.01-99.28%. The percentage of relative standard deviation was found to be less than critical value. The method was found to be accurate, precise and selective for simultaneous estimation of Oxcarbazepine in tablets. Download
    • Evaluating the Efficacy of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Linn Mucilage as Tablet Binder in the Formulation of Orodispersible Tablets of Perindopril Erbumine

      The aim of the current study is to formulate oro-dispersible tablets of Perindopril Erbumine using a natural binder which was extracted from Hibiscus rosasinensis linn. The leaves of this plant yield mucilage which was used as binder and was extracted using acetone. Perindopril Erbumine an ACE inhibitor was used as a model drug for this study. Perindopril Erbumine is used as an anti-hypertensive agent. It was observed from the evaluations that the batch F1 showed the best disintegration time and also completes drug release within five minutes. Hence it was concluded that orally disintegrating tablets of Perindopril Erbumine can be successfully formulated using mucilage extracted from Hibiscus rosasinensis linn as a tablet binder. Download
    • Solid Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System: A Novel Approach

      The new chemical entities discovered by the pharmaceutical industry up to 40% to 50% are poorly soluble or lipophilic compounds, which leads to poor oral bioavailability. Currently a number of technologies are available to deal with the poor solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of insoluble drugs. Recently much attention has been paid to lipid based formulations with particular emphasis on self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS), to improve the oral bioavailability of lipophilic drugs. Self emulsifying formulations are mixtures of oils and surfactants, ideally isotropic, and sometimes containing co-solvents, which emulsify spontaneously to produce fine oil-in-water emulsion when introduced into aqueous phase under conditions of gentle agitation. The present review examines the recent advances in Solid SEDDS (S-SEDDS) with regard to the selection of lipid systems for current formulations, solidification techniques by adsorbing agents and the development of solid SE (self-emulsifying) dosage forms and their related problem. Download
    • A Review on Parenteral Controlled Drug Delivery System

      The Parenteral administration route is the most common and efficient for delivery of active drug substances with poor bio-availability and the drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. Drug delivery technology that can reduce the total number of injection throughout the drug therapy period will be truly advantageous not only in terms of compliance, but also to improve the quality of the therapy and also may reduce the dosage frequency. Parenteral drug delivery system seeks to optimize therapeutic index by providing immediate drug to the systemic pool in required quantity to treat– cardiac attacks, respiratory attacks. This article includes preparation, characterization and applications of parenteral controlled drug delivery system. Download
    • Retinoblastoma –A Molecular Dream

      Retinoblastoma is an uncommon eye tumor of adolescence that emerges in the retina. It is the most well-known intraocular distortion of childhood; with an occurrence of 1/20,000–25,000 live births. The two most recurrent manifestations uncovering retinoblastoma are leukocoria and strabismus. Iris rubeosis, hypopyon, hyphema, buphthalmia, orbital cellulites and exophthalmia might likewise be detected. Sixty five percent of retinoblastomas are unilateral and mostly are non-genetic (identified within two year). Retinoblastoma is bilateral in 35% of cases (identified within one year). All bilateral and multifocal unilateral structures are innate. Innate retinoblastoma constitutes a cancer predisposition disorder: a subject unavoidably conveying a RB1 gene mutation has 90% risk of developing retinoblastoma but on the other hand are at higher risk of developing various cancers. Identification is made by fundoscopy, Ultrasound, MRI and CT scan. Managing patients with retinoblastoma must consider the different aspects of the malady: the visual impairment, the conceivably hereditary nature of the illness and the life-time risk. Download
    • Prostate Cancer Stem Cell –Future Outlook

      Prostate cancer is presently a typical ailment in men more than 50 years old. Medicinal treatments for prostate cancer are in light of disclosures from the mid-twentieth century, and in the long term are seldom curative. Most medicines are coordinated towards an androgen receptor expressing, highly proliferative target cell, which does undoubtedly structure the greater part of cells in a prostate tumor. Notwithstanding, by conjuring the presence of a cancer stem cell which, in the same way as typical epithelial stem cell in the prostate, does not represent androgen receptor and is generally silent, the observed imperviousness to most therapeutic treatments can be clarified. The phenotype of the prostate cancer stem cell is that of a basal cell and culture derived from cancer, yet not benign tissues, express a variety of prostate cancer related RNAs. Moreover, stem cells filtered on the premise of alpha2beta1 high integrin and CD133 cell surface antigen articulation, from a culture of Gleason 4 (2+2) prostate tumor (P4E6), had the capacity to form numerous intra prostatic tumors in naked mice when joined orthotopically in a matrigel attachment containing human prostatic stroma. The final tumors reexpressed androgen receptor and showed a histology like that of a Gleason 4 cancer. The presence of prostate cancer stem cells offers a hypothetical clarification for a large portion of the persevering vulnerabilities encompassing the etiology and treatment of the most usually diagnosed tumor in US men. The investigation of cancer stem cells in prostate, is basically reliant on the accessibility of untainted cell population, a circumstance entangled by the heterogeneity of prostate tumors. Be that as it may, choice of cells with a CD133+/α2β1 integrin/ CD44+ phenotype improves for a tumor-starting population from human prostate cancer. Among the most squeezing needs is for persisting treatment in subjects who have encountered failure of hormonal medicines. Since the putative cancer stem cell do ‘not express androgen receptor, it is liable to be immune from most androgen-based treatments, and an inalienable hereditary instability would empower the tumor to develop the new variations present in hormone-refractory disease. Prostate cancer stem cell have a special gene articulation signature that can likewise be identified with Gleason grade and patient result. The shortage of cancer stem cell in a prostate tumor will presumably confine their handiness in cancer finding and visualization. Be that as it may, the rise of new stem cell therapeutic targets not just will oblige new tests for efficacy (due to their generally silent nature), additionally holds genuine promise of more enduring medicines to enlarge those presently coordinated against the remaining tumor cells, which embody 99.9% of tumor mass, however incomprehensibly have a poor tumor-initiating limitation. Download
    • Phytochemical Investigation and Antiulcer Activity of Momordia Charantia (Linn.) Seeds

      Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) is a plant, reported for its variety of ethnic medicinal uses. Hence we have planned to screen antiulcer activity of seeds of the plant with the various extracts.Coarsely powdered seeds were successively extracted with petroleumether,chloroform,methanol and macerated with water and all the extracts were subjected for phytochemical screening to identify different phytoconstituents. Ld50 studies for all extracts were conducted upto the dose level of 1.5g/kg by following OECD of guidelines No.425. Anti ulcer activity was evaluated in animal model like Pylorus ligation induced ulcer model in rats. Preliminary phytochemical studies revealed the presence of fats and oils alkaloids, proteins, flavonoids in all extracts of M.charantia. No mortality was observed with all extracts up to the maximum dose level of 1.5 g/kg. Further all extracts at 150 mg/kg p.o doses significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the ulcer score, ulcer index, free acidity and total acidity in Pylorus ligation induced ulcer models in rats. The present study revealed the antiulcer activity of seed extracts of M.charantia and the activities are due to the presence of phytochemical constituents such as fats and oils alkaloids, proteins and Flavonoids as these phytochemical constituents were already reported for the above mentioned effects. Download
    • Estimation Herb/Spice/Vegetables Trace Elements: North-West-Regional State(s) of Haryana (India)

      A number of elements (bio-active traces from Herbs/Spices/Vegetables) can to improve the taste of foods as well as influence digestion (with metabolism processes and also contains an integer residues of undesirable components (myco-toxins/pesticides/heavy metals/poly-cyclic carbohydrates that can be harmful). The metals (i.e. Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) contents in (North-West region of Haryana States) mainly trendy spices/vegetables levels were estimated by atomic absorption (AAS; assayed) method. Moreover, the resulted data of metals (Zn and Cu) levels were found with-in limits to be safe (excluding Mn and Fe metals data demonstrated the higher concentration in spices/vegetables can be considered as toxic for human) by comparison with safety standards of National Ministry of Health (NMH). Download
    • Human Lung Cancer: Molecular Inconsistencies and Therapeutic Consequences

      Human Lung cancer is the main reason for cancer related death and hence a significant health issue. The effectiveness of current therapy modalities for lung cancer depends firmly on the time of opinion, with better risks of survival if a tumour has been identified at an early stage. Along these lines, there is a pressing requirement for fast and effective early recognition method. Albeit most lung malignancies are the outcome of smoking, a significant fraction of molecular epidemiological studies point to high-predominance, low-penetrance genetic polymorphisms as modifiers of natural lung cancer hazard. Recently the genomics field has additionally made critical advances in distinguishing genetic lesions that can now be reaped with the objective of recognizing novel biomarkers for lung cancer. Novel high-throughput, quantitative measures for the discovery of DNA methylation or histone tail alterations are currently applied, to look for changes in the lung cancer genome and will distinguish novel cancer related genes that may get to be alluring focuses for treatment, give new understanding into the science of lung cancers, and could likewise get to be valuable biomarkers for the early recognition of lung cancer in saliva, or may be utilized as prognostic biomarkers. Download
    • The Cogency and Impregnability of Acupuncture Therapy in Healing Ailment: A Critical Investigation

      Over its 2500 years of health improvement, an abundance of experience has aggregated in the act of acupuncture, confirming the extensive variety of maladies and conditions that can be successfully treated with this methodology. Dissimilar to numerous other conventional techniques for treatment, which have a tendency to be particular to their national or cultural context, acupuncture has been utilized all through the world, especially since the 1970s. Doctors rehearsing acupuncture in diverse nations were welcome to recognize the conditions that may advantage from this treatment. The members drew up a rundown of 43 suitable maladies. In this distribution article the expression "acupuncture" is utilized as a part of its wide sense to incorporate customary body needling, moxibustion, electro-acupuncture, laser acupuncture, microsystem acupuncture, for example, ear, face, hand and scalp acupuncture, and pressure point massage . The points of interest of acupuncture are that it is straightforward, helpful and has few contraindications. In spite of the fact that the achievement rate of acupuncture treatment in treating kidney stones, for instance, is affirmed by similar studies with different treatments, it is in no way, shape or form as high as that of surgical intercession. In any case, acupuncture treatment of kidney stones is still justified even despite prescribing due to its straightforwardness, which makes it more adequate to patients. Various instance uncover that the regulatory activity of acupuncture is bi-directional. Acupuncture brings down the pulse in patients with hypertension and lifts it in patients with hypotension; increments gastric discharge in patients with hypoacidity, and reductions it in patients with hyperacidity; and standardizes intestinal motility under X-ray observation in patients with either spastic colitis or intestinal hypotonia. Download
    • A Comparative Evaluation of Branded and Generic Versions of Levocetrizine and Cephalexin

      In India most of its population spend huge amount of money on the branded medicines but most of the drugs are also available in the generic version which comply with Indian Pharmacopoeial standards. By prescribing these medicines doctors can reduce cost burden from the patient’s pocket. Most of the drugs are also available at a lower price than the current marketed branded drugs. The main aim of this research work was to compare the generic versions of Cephalexin capsule 250 mg and Levocetrizine 5mg to their branded counterparts. It was concluded that the generics drugs met the Indian Pharmacopoeial standards and were of similar quality as that of branded drugs. Download
    • Assessment of Community Pharmacy Workflow Process in Preventing Dispensing Errors in Anantapur District

      The objectives of this analysis were to determine the compliance rate with dispensing workflow criteria and note if any dispensing errors occurred. Observations were made within 20 retail pharmacies, with a total of 500 prescriptions and transactions. Pharmacies were classified and categorized in to high and low risk pharmacies based on the incidence of errors. The compliance rates for the dispensing workflow criteria were observed between high and low risk pharmacies and also between employee categories. Employee categories included pharmacists, pharmacy assistants, pharmacy interns and technicians who were involved in the study for a 06 month period. There were statistically significant variations between the high and low risk pharmacies, between the employee categories. Based on this study, the lack of verification of patient details during prescription pickup was the lack, and more commonly associated with pharmacies dispensing workflow procedure reporting increased incidence of dispensing errors. Download
    • The Dawning Era for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Development: An Imminent Mirror

      Treating AIDS is by and large taken to mean clearing the HIV from the body, the virus that lead to AIDS. The virus reproduces (makes new duplicates of itself) by embedding its hereditary code into human cells, especially a type called as CD4 cells. Typically the contaminated cells produce various HIV particles and pass on soon subsequently. Antiretroviral medications meddle with this replication process, which is the reason the medications are so viable at lessening the measure of HIV in an individual's body to amazingly low levels. Tragically, not all contaminated cells act the same way. Likely the most imperative issue is postured by resting CD4 cells. Once tainted with HIV, these cells, as opposed to delivering new duplicates of the virus, lie lethargic for a long time. Current treatments can't expel HIV's hereditary material from these cells. Regardless of the fact that patient takes antiretroviral medications for a long time, HIV still be hiding up in different parts of their body. Studies have observed that if treatment is uprooted then HIV can re-make itself by spilling out viral repositories. As of now, there is no therapeutic choice accessible other than constant prescription of medications for avoiding HIV replication. In spite of the fact that scientists have distinguished cell reservoirs where the virus perseveres amid proceeded with antiretroviral treatment, the methodologies that can be produced to dispose of these reservoirs or bring them under viable and persevering control, without the requirement for antiretroviral treatment, stay misty. Whichever methods are inevitably tried, be that as it may, they must be tried in a patient populace that is getting blend ART, a treatment that is for the most part powerful and generally safe. Download
    • Implication of Placebo Upshot in Biomedical Investigations: False Hope and Best Clinical Data

      Placebo is used as a substance, medicine and procedure that the physician believes has not known certain pharmacological action against the condition that being treated. If this produces an effect in patients resulting from its unquestioning or manifesting purpose and not from its specific physical and chemical properties. Placebos often take in the form of sugar pills, saline injections, miniscule doses of drug or sham procedures designed to be void any therapeutic value. In medical research placebo given as control treatment depend on the use of measured suggestion the based on false information. Some of physician believes that placebo can be produces an effect negative or positive based on patients psychological thinking. The ethical aspect of the use, act of placing patient in placebo group has been equated with the negligent withholding of treatment. This could be interpreting as a violation of beneficence. The use of placebo controls touch main of four ethical principles that are principle of autonomy, beneficence, paternalism is the special type of beneficence and nonmaleficence. Both the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki and Council of International Organization for Medical Sciences' International Ethical Guideline for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects have recently been revised in a way that seems to support wider use of placebo controls. Ultimately, deceptive use of placebos is not ethically acceptable because it may potential harm to patients to greater degree than it helps them. Biomedical Research and development of new drugs and implies an important investment of human and economic resources for conducting clinical trials designed to evaluate efficacy and safety of new medications. Knowledge of mechanisms of placebo effect and how the latter can influence the different efficacy variables in these research studies appears essential in order to optimize the available resource in application to development of new drugs. Download
    • Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacogenetics (PGx) A Connexion to Personalized Cancer Therapy

      In the recent years, headways in Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx) have gradually revealed the genetic premise of inter individual contrasts in drug reactions. A tangible parcel of these developments has been made in the field of anticancer treatment. PGx mostly center to illuminate the genomic elements of medication mien and its impact. As tumor chemotherapy is generally non-particular and has limited remedial index, there is an incredible probability for pharmacogenomics to enhance treatment by either diminishing the various types of toxicity or escalating the efficacy. As of late, the US FDA has redesigned approx. 30 anticancer biomarkers to incorporate PGx data which incorporates the unpredictability of hereditary information (e.g. Cancer mutation, chromosomal translocation and germ line mutations). Download
    • A molecular outlook of Ebola Virus Infection Contemporary evidence and Future Implications

      A flare-up of EVD, which began in December 2013, is constantly advancing in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The first instance was accounted for from Guéckédou prefecture, which is a forested locale of south-eastern Guinean earth outskirt with Liberia and Sierra Leone. After an ease off in April, the flare-up has quickened amid the last two months. This is the biggest EVD episode ever documented, both regarding number of cases and geographical area. It is additionally the first run through EVD has spread to larger urban societies. Despite the fact that its clinical progression is well known, the particular mechanism underlying the pathogenicity of Ebola virus infection has not been obviously portrayed. This is expected to some degree, to the trouble in acquiring specimens and investigating the infection in the moderately remote regions in which the outbreaks happen. Also, a high level of biohazard regulation is needed for lab studies and clinical dissection. Segregation of the viral cDNAs and the development of expression framework shear permitted the investigation of Ebola virus infection under less restrictive conditions and encouraged an understanding of the mechanism underlying virally affected cell damage. Download
    • Study on Protective Effect of Omega -3 Fatty Acid Rich Extract of Linium Usitatissimum Seeds on Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

      There are many diseases that are still considered as untreatable by most of the physicians, and epilepsy is one of those. Traditional healers claim that they can treat epilepsy by use of some natural components. The Indian Traditional Medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani are predominantly based on the use of herbal drugs/ products for medicinal benefits. Herbal drugs have gained importance and popularity in recent years because of their safety, efficacy and cost effectiveness. One of the important and well-documented uses of plant products is their use as nephro-protective agents. Hence, there is an ever increasing need for safe nephro-protective agent. Oxidative stress is a state where oxidative forces exceed the antioxidant systems due to loss of the balance between them. Thus due to easy availability of plant and its traditional uses, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of plant extract against Cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats by using biochemical parameters and antioxidant status in kidney of rats after oral administration of 100 and 200 mg/ kg body weight of extract. Download
    • The Dawning Era of Nano Medicine for Anti-Cancer Therapy

      Nanotechnology gives a mixed bag of Nano scale instruments for medicine. Cancer Nano therapeutics is quickly advancing and is continuously being actualized to tackle a few confinements of drug delivery systems for example nonspecific biodistribution and focusing on, absence of water dissolvability, poor oral bioavailability, and low therapeutic indices. To enhance the bio distribution of cancer medications, nanoparticles have been intended for ideal size and surface characteristics to build their circulation time in the circulatory system. They are likewise fit to convey their stacked active drugs to cancer cells by specifically utilizing the extraordinary pathophysiology of tumors, for example, their upgraded permeability and retention impact and the tumor microenvironment. Notwithstanding this aloof focusing on mechanism, active focusing on methods utilizing ligands or antibodies administered against chose tumor targets enhance the specificity of these therapeutics nanoparticles. Medicine resistance, an alternate obstruction that blocks the viability of both molecularly focused on and routine chemotherapeutic executors, may additionally be succeed, or in any event diminished, utilizing nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have the capacity to accumulate in cells without being perceived by P-glycoprotein, one of the principle arbiters of multidrug resistance, bringing about the expanded intracellular concentration of medications. Multifunctional & multiplex nanoparticles are presently being energetically explored and are coming soon as the next era of nanoparticles, encouraging customized and custom-made tumor treatment. Download
    • The Panorama of Genetic Inheritance Intricacy in Gene Expression Analysis

      The view that alter the control of gene expression rather than changes to protein sequences are focal to the development of organism has ended up something of a truism in molecular biology. Truly, the direct confirmation for this is constrained, and just lastly we have the capability to look more comprehensively at how genetic variation impacts gene expression, centering upon individual variation in gene expression and utilizing microarrays to test for difference in mRNA levels. Understanding the impact of genetics on the molecular mechanism underpinning human phenotypic diversity is major to having the capacity to anticipate health outcome and treat illness. To question the role of genetics on cell state and function, gene expression has been widely utilized. Previous and recent studies have highlighted imperative patterns of heritability, populace separation and tissue-specificity in gene expression. such studies are exploiting system biology based methodologies and advances in sequencing technology: new philosophy means to make an expressions of regulatory networks to enhance pathways responsible of ailment etiology and second era sequencing now offers single molecular resolution of the transcriptome giving remarkable data on the structural and genetic attributes of gene expression. Such advances are prompting a future where rich cell phenotypes will encourage understanding of the transmission of genetic impact from the gene to organism. Download
    • Angiogenesis: An imprint for Melanoma Progression

      Angiogenesis happens in neurotic conditions, like in Malignant tumors, where a particular discriminating point in Malignant tumor development is the conversion from the avascular to the vascular stage. Malignant tumor angiogenesis depends fundamentally on the discharge by neoplastic cells of development variables particular for endothelial cells, which can empower the development of the host's veins. This article outlines the writing concerning the strong relationship between angiogenesis and human melanoma movement. The latest requisitions of antiangiogenic executors which meddle with melanoma movement are likewise depicted. Download
    • Stem Cells Therapy: An Innovative Slant in Drug Discovery Research

      The recognizable proof of ordinary and carcinogenic stem cell and the latest developments made in seclusion and principles of stem cells have quickly picked up consideration in the field of medicine discovery and regenerative prescriptions. The possibility of performing screens pointed at burgeoning, controlled separation, and toxicity and adequacy studies utilizing stem cells offers a solid stage for the medication finding process. Progresses made in the era of incited pluripotent stem cells from typical or unhealthy tissue serves as a stage to perform medicine screens pointed at creating cell-based treatments against disorders like Parkinson's ailment and diabetes. This review talks about the provision of stem cells and cancer stem cell in medicine screening and their part in supplementing, decreasing, and reinstating animal testing. Notwithstanding this, target distinguishing proof and real developments in the field of customized Medicine utilizing affected pluripotent cells are additionally examined. Download
    • An Overview of Iranian Patent System

      Intellectual property protection is a one type of the protection to the innovator, rebelling from the creative efforts of the human Mind style exhibited by a virtuoso. The patenting system status in Iran is discussed using some recent statistics on the number of field and granted Iranian patents to resident and non-resident applicants. The Iranian patent laws differ from other countries. Patent system in Iran is briefly introduced and discussed in this paper to give the reader an overview of the status of the changes in the Iranian IP law. The Iranian patent legislation had a provision for registration of patent separately for resident and nonresident applicants. Download
    • Nucleotide Sequencing and Putative Conserved Domains Analysis of Clostridium Perfringens Type A Alpha Toxin Gene Strain Isolated in Iran

      Alpha-toxin is produced by all Clostridium perfringens strains but type A produces higher amounts than the other types. In the present study, an isolation of C. perfringens type A alpha toxin gene cloning in E. coli for in silico analysis of its putative conserved domains sequences and also as a candidate for recombinant vaccine production was studied. High molecular weight genomic DNA of C. perfringens type A was isolated and cpa was amplified using one pair of primers. NdeI and XhoI restriction endonuclease sequences and flanking regions were included in the 5' end of forward end and 3' end of reverse primers, respectively. 1094 bp gene was ligated into 2974 bp pJET1.2blunt recombinant vector and 4068 bp pJETAα recombinant vector was produced. After pJETAα recombinant cloning vector extraction, Nucleotide sequence and 364 amino acids protein sequence was deposited in GenBank. In silico analysis of these sequences showed several putative conserved domains. Region 11-244 is a "ZnPC-S1P1". Region 2-249 is "PLAT". Region 4-246 is a zinc dependent phospholipase C. Region 14-207 is a zinc dependent phospholipase C. Region 265-349 is PLAT/LH2 domain. Region274-349 is PLAT domain of 12/15-lipoxygenase. This analysis revealed that amino acids number 15, 72, 130, 134, 140, 152 and 156 are "Zn binding site (ion binding site). Download