• Prescription Pattern of Drugs In Pregnancy Induced Hypertension In A Tertiary Care Hospital

      Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the drug utilization pattern of antihypertensive drugs in pregnancy induced hypertension. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted by department of Pharmacy practice in collaboration with the Department of Obstetrics in a tertiary care hospital at Karnataka after taking permission from the Institutional Review Board. WHO basic indicators were indicators were used for studying the prescribing pattern of drugs. The study involves collection and documentation of case sheets and treatment charts of inpatients with a diagnosis of pregnancy induced hypertension along with other co morbidities. Results: Out of the total prescriptions studied the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive was nifedipine , followed by labetalol and methyldopa . Majority drugs prescribed were from category C and B. Single drug therapy was prescribed in 77.01% patients. The use of fixed dose combinations was low. Conclusion: The incidence of single drugs therapy and two drugs was high. Nifedipine was the commonly prescribed antihypertensive. None of the prescribed drugs were from teratogenic category D and X. Download
    • Aripiprazole and Clozapine: A Review of Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Method

      Aripiprazole and Clozapine are classified as an Atypical Antipsychotics. Aripiprazole primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Clozapine works by changing the actions of chemicals in the brain. It is used to treat severe schizophrenia, or to reduce the risk of suicidal behavior in people with schizophrenia or similar disorders. It is also used in Parkinson’s disease. The clinical and pharmaceutical analysis of these drugs requires effective analytical procedures for quality control and pharmacodyna44mic and pharmacokinetic studies as well as stability study. There are many analytical methods reported so far in the literature for the determination of Aripiprazole and Clozapine in Biological samples and pharmaceutical formulations. This article comprises reviews of analytical methods like Spectrophotometric methods, chromatographic methods. Download
    • Evaluation of Plasma Lactate and Electrolytes In Type II Diabetes Mellitus

      Aim: To estimate sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) , bicarbonate (HCO3─) and lactate levels in arterial blood of diabetes mellitus type II patients. Material and Method: 90 non-alcoholic, non-smoker subjects above the age of 40 years were participated in the present study, subdivided in 3 groups. Group 1: 30 diabetic subjects above the age of 40 years suffering from diabetes mellitus type II as diagnosed by the physician and having random plasma glucose < 400 mg/dl. Group 2 : 30 diabetic subjects above the age of 40 years suffering from diabetes mellitus type II as diagnosed by the physician and having random plasma glucose ≥ 400 mg/dl. Control group : 30 non-diabetic age and sex matched subjects. Arterial blood samples were collected from radial artery in a heparinised syringe & processed immediately on blood gas analyzer GEM PREMIER 3000, using GEM PREMIER 3000 pak cartridge. Results: There was significant decrease in plasma sodium levels in diabetic patients compared to controls. Plasma potassium levels were significantly increased in diabetic patients than controls. Conclusion: Uncontrolled hyperglycemia (group 2 diabetics) is significantly associated with electrolyte imbalance and lactic acidosis in type II diabetes mellitus patients. It was concluded that electrolyte imbalance found in diabetics may have great potential as a diagnostic tool in clinical practice and have a significant effect upon controlling the risk of many diseases & complications. Download
    • Review On Analytical Method for Determination of Sitagliptin Phosphate in Bulk and In Different Dosage Forms

      Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4s), also called as gliptins, are a relatively new class of drugs to treat type 2 diabetes. Sitagliptin phosphate competitively inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). This enzyme breakdown the incretins GLP-1, gastrointestinal hormones released in response to a meal. By preventing GLP-1 inactivation, they are able to increase the secretion of insulin and suppress the release of glucagon by the alpha cells of pancreas. This leads blood glucose level to normal. It also opens new gateways for a personalized medicine in patients with Type 2 diabetes and it also offers various merits when compared to other glucose-lowering agents. Despite they have been commercialized since a few years only, available data obtained in randomized controlled trials are of better quality compared to those available with classical glucose-lowering agents, especially in elderly people who have suffering from renal impairment or at high cardiovascular risk and patients at higher risk of hypoglycemia. But, their remaining uncertainties and controversies that should be resolved by further ongoing large prospective controlled trials and increasing clinical experience combined with a careful post-marketing surveillance. The clinical and pharmaceutical analysis of these drugs requires effective analytical procedures for quality control and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies as well as stability study. There are many analytical methods reported so far in the literature for the determination of Sitagliptin phosphate in Biological samples and pharmaceutical formulations. This article narrates different chromatographic (HPLC, HPTLC, UPLC, LC) & different spectrophotometric method (UV) for Sitagliptin single drug as well as combination with other drug Download
    • Isolation, Characterization and Biological Activities of 1-(5-Hydroxypentyloxy) Propan-2-One from Ethanolic Rhizome Extract of Kaempferia galanga

      Plants contain several phytocompounds that shows interaction with various proteins involved in diseases. An isolation and characterization of a phytocompound from ethanolic rhizome extract of K. galanga was conducted. Characterization of a novel compound was done using UV, proton, 13C, mass and IR spectra’s. K. galanga contains a novel phytocompound 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one identified based on spectra’s. Various biological activities like antioxidant, antimicrobial, protease inhibition and anti-proliferation activities were tested for 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one. The antioxidant activities with IC50 for 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one was shown 44.5 µg/ml and IC50 for standard (Ascorbic acid) was shown as 24.5µg/ml. The 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one were shown good antifungal activities (9 to 12 mm) along with antibacterial activities (10 to 12 mm). The standard antibiotic like Tetracyclin shown zone of inhibition as 10 to 14mm for tested bacteria and for fungi standard as Fluconazole shown zone of inhibition from 13 to 16 mm. The protease inhibition studies for 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one of K. galanga have shown the good inhibition activity with enzymes like protease K and trypsin. The dose response of 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one from K. galanga on MCF-7 (Breast Cancer) cell line shown very less activity 130 µgm/ml when compared with the standard tamoxifen 12.5 µgm/ml. Hence the experimentations concluded that a phytocompound, 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one from ethanolic rhizome extract of K. galanga shown biological activities. Download
    • Virosomes : New Frontier for Targeting Drugs and Biological Molecules

      Over the last decade, there has been a great revolution in drug delivery technologies. Delivery of drugs and biological molecules using virosomes is a novel technique available these days. Virosomes are the unilamellar phospholipid bilayer vesicles containing virus derived proteins. They show the targeted action by fusing with the target cell. They may be used as vaccines or vehicle for cellular delivery of macromolecules. Along with the delivery of these substances, it also helps in potentiating immune response. The success of virosomal drug delivery depends upon the method of preparation, use of proper detergents and short chain phospholipids, and function of hemagglutinins. Several parameters are studied regarding their morphology, safety, efficacy and stability. It is also observed that virosomes are showing greater target specificity in combating ebola infection. Though it is a novel, effective drug delivery mechanism, advanced research is needed to use virosomes as a powerful tool. Download
    • In vitro antitermite activity of alkaloids from Epipremnum aureum(Linden and Andre) Bunting (Araceae) against Indian white termite Odontotermes obesus

      Plants of Araceae family are well known sources of secondary metabolites with a wide range of biological activities, including antibacterial, antifungal, anticancerous, antioxidative, analgesic, and antipyretic properties, among others. In the present study laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate antitermite response of alkaloids isolated Epipremnum aureum(Linden and Andre) Bunting leaf, stem and root against Indian white termite Odontotermes obesus. Purified fractions of alkaloid showed remarkable toxicity against O. obesus at forty times dilution with respect to control. Soil sample with termites were collected from field and healthy termites were sorted out. Thirty active workers were released on each treated Whatman filter paper (90mm diameter) fitted inside glass petridishes. Mortality of termites was observed after fifteen minutes and compared with untreated filter papers. Highest mortality rate has been recorded with alkaloids isolated from leaves of E. aureum. Results of present study may be useful for development of herbal formulation for spot treatment in termite infested buildings, agriculture, furniture and to overcome synthetic termiticides borne problems. Download
    • Development and Evaluation of Extended Release Microspheres of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride using Eudragit and Ethyl Cellulose

      Extended release microspheres of Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride, a skeletal muscle relaxant which relieves muscle spasm of local origin without interfering with muscle. Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride is highly water soluble drug, having low oral bioavailability (33-55%) due to extensive metabolism of drug. And the dosage forms available in market were having trice daily administration. The main objective of present study was developed to improve oral bioavailability, reduce the frequency of drug administration, and improve patient compliance. In this study, extended release microspheres of Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride was prepared by solvent evaporation techniques using Eudragit RS 100, Eudragit RS&RL 100 and Ethyl cellulose as polymers and yield, particle size, encapsulation efficiencies and in vitro release of the prepared microspheres were evaluated. The results showed that percentage yields were influenced mainly by polymer concentration, type of polymer. The encapsulation efficiencies were desired for all the formulations of microspheres developed. Particle sizes of the microspheres were influenced by the concentration of Polymer, type of polymer and stirring speed. From the results of the in vitro study shows that the desired release rate is achieved by CBRS 4, CBRL 3 and CBEC 4 formulations are releasing the drug up to 12 hrs. Download
    • Composition, Characterization and Application of Fast Dissolving Oral Film-A Review

      Fast dissolving drug delivery systems (FDDDS), such as, Fast Dissolving Oral Films (FDOF) or Oral Thin Films (OTFs), offer a convenient way of dosing medications, not only to special population groups with swallowing difficulties such as Pediatrics and Geriatrics, but also to the general population. FDDDS have been developed as an alternative to conventional dosage form as an oral means of drug delivery in case of chronic conditions. Now a day's fast dissolving films are preferred over conventional tablets and capsules for masking the taste of bitter drugs to increase the patient compliance. FDOF consist of a very thin oral strip which dissolves in less than one minute when placed on the tongue. Dissolvable oral thin films are in the market since past few years in the form of breath strips and are widely accepted by consumers for delivering vitamins, vaccines and other drug products. FDOF are the novel dosage forms that disintegrate and dissolve within the oral cavity. Intra-oral absorption permits rapid onset of action and helps by-pass first-pass effects, thereby reducing the unit dose required to produce desired therapeutic effect. The present review provides an overview of Composition Characterization and Application of FDOF. The ultimate goal of this drug delivery system is the successful delivery of the drug to the body. Download
    • Papain Hydrogel with Polysorbate Critical Micelle Concentration and Thermodynamics Stability

      Critical Micelle Concentration is a surfactant concentration above which micelles form. Micelle formation favors solubilization of poorly soluble substances in a required middle. Papain is a proteolytic enzyme used in wound care. It is partially soluble in water and slightly stable in formulations. Hydrogel has been prepared with papain and polysorbate 80 as a solubilizing agent serially, with and without L-cysteine. This study aimed to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC) by measuring surface tension (Du Nouy) and thermodynamic stability using zeta potential technique. The use of L-cysteine caused a decrease in CMC, and polysorbate 80 almost achieved a zero zeta potential. Nevertheless, in both serials, papain hydrogels were homogeneous and thermodynamically stable. Download