• Clinical Applications and Anatomic Variation of Inferior Phrenic Arteries and their Branches by 64-Slice Spiral CT Angiographic Analysis

      Objectives: The present study aims at determining the ability of 64-slice spiral CT angiographic analysis to identify the origin and distribution of both the left and right IPAs and its branches in normal and pathological cases. Methods: Three hundred cases of normal healthy subjects aged 20-89 years (median age = 54 years) who received the 64-slice spiral CT of abdominal vessel two-stage contrast-enhanced from the First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University from August 2015 to February 2016 were selected for the study. Then the bilateral origin of the IPA was recorded, diameter and performance were measured, and the obtained data was then compared with that of the normal group. The statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS version 17.0 statistical software. Results and Conclusion: In addition, the IPA is frequently reconstructed through several pathways, mainly through the retroperitoneal network. The study also aims to apply such findings to the clinical scenario of treating HCC. IPA with 64-slice spiral CT angiography can clearly show the normal anatomy and variation of IPA. Download
    • Clinical Applications and Anatomic Variation of Inferior Phrenic Arteries and their Branches by 64-Slice Spiral CT Angiographic Analysis

      Objectives: The present study aims at determining the ability of 64-slice spiral CT angiographic analysis to identify the origin and distribution of both the left and right IPAs and its branches in normal and pathological cases. Methods: Three hundred cases of normal healthy subjects aged 20-89 years (median age = 54 years) who received the 64-slice spiral CT of abdominal vessel two-stage contrast-enhanced from the First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University from August 2015 to February 2016 were selected for the study. Then the bilateral origin of the IPA was recorded, diameter and performance were measured, and the obtained data was then compared with that of the normal group. The statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS version 17.0 statistical software. Results and Conclusion: In addition, the IPA is frequently reconstructed through several pathways, mainly through the retroperitoneal network. The study also aims to apply such findings to the clinical scenario of treating HCC. IPA with 64-slice spiral CT angiography can clearly show the normal anatomy and variation of IPA. Download
    • Formulation and Characterization of Oral Suspension Containing Ibuprofen

      The present work was aimed with the objective of formulating oral suspension of ibuprofen to enhance the convenience and compliance by the elderly and pediatric patients. The suspension were prepared by incorporating the prepared ibuprofen physical mixtures so as to achieve the aimed percent drug release (using poloxomer, Poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and PolyVinaylAlcohol (PVA)) in sodium carboxy methyl cellulose as dispersing medium. Particular attention was given to the selection of the suitable taste masking agents. The suspension was characterized in term of ibuprofen content, viscosity, and sedimentation volume and dissolution test. The promising suspension F8 having the optimal formula showing the greatest dissolution and satisfactory sedimentation volume and physico-mechanical properties compared with a reference marketed product. FT-IR studies revealed that there is no interaction between the drug and the polymers used in the study. Rheological studies revealed significant difference between the suspensions that the incorporation of PVP and PVA enhances the viscosity of the suspension as a result the rate of dissolution was retarded. Download
    • Studies on Ethnomedicinally important plants of Bariya Forest Division, Gujarat (India)

      Ethnobotanical and Ethnomedicinal surveys are important as they lead to possible drug discoveries. An ethnomedicinal survey was carried out in Bariya Forest Division to document medicinally important flora and related traditional knowledge. The data of local traditional uses were collected through personal and group interviews, and field visits with locals, and faith healers. The present study revealed 99 plant species belonging to 56 different families reported to be traditionally used by the ethnic groups receding in the peripheries of the forests of the Bariya Forest Division. The identification of the listed plants here is based on The Flora of Gujarat State. The collected and identified plants were deposited at the herbarium of the Department of Botany, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad. Download
    • A Prospective Study on Identification of Actual and Potential Drug Related Problems in Geriatric Patients: The Role of the Clinical Pharmacist

      Drug related problems can be defined as the drug therapy that potentially or actually interferes with desired health outcomes. Drug related problems are common among elderly (Geriatric) patients using multiple drugs for the treatment of chronic disease. The fact that elderly patients take more medication for the treatment of several diseases makes them more vulnerable to the occurrence of many drug related problems and also due to the physiological changes that occurs with advancing age. Drug related problems can originate when prescribing, dispensing or taking/administering drugs. Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic rise in the number of elderly people in the developed and as well as developing countries although the disability rates among the elderly population were declining in the developed countries but increasing in the developing countries due to limited pharmaceutical care. The increase in the life expectancy has posed one of the toughest challenges to be met by the health care professionals and by the society. As life expectancy increases, there is a need to improve the health, quality of life, discovery of new treatments, prevention strategies, improving health behaviour and medication use. In this study, drug related problems in elderly patients are being studied and pharmacist interventions are being made for better therapeutic efficacy and improved quality of life. The main aim of the study was to analyse the usage of drugs among geriatric patients and the Drug related problems associated with it. This study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital. The result of the study shows, males (62.8%) were more affected by chronic disease than females (36%). The most common drug related problem was found to be Drug interaction, Drug duplication and followed by the long duration of drugs. Patient counseling being the cause of many drug related problems were able to be rectified and also imposing to the patient the importance of compliance better therapeutic care was provided. Our study concludes that pharmacist intervention can reduce drug related problems and thereby providing better pharmaceutical care. Download
    • Development and Characterization of Mucoadhesive HBsAg PLGA Microsphere for Nasal Vaccine Delivery

      The purpose of the study was to evaluate the mucoadhesive property of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loaded surface modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres for nasal vaccine delivery. The surface modification was carried out using coating material such as chitosan, Trimethyl chitosan and N-trimethyl chitosan and N-carboxymethyl chitosan (TMC-CMC). The developed formulations were characterized for surface morphology, particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, structural integrity, In vitro mucoadhesion study and mucin adsorption ability. PLGA microspheres without surface modification demonstrated negative zeta potential, whereas Chitosan and its derivatives coated microspheres showed higher positive zeta potential. Results indicated that combination of TMC-CMC coated microspheres demonstrated substantially higher mucin adsorption and longer time of mucoadhesion when compared to chitosan and TMC coated microspheres and uncoated PLGA microspheres. Both uncoated and coated PLGA microspheres showed initial burst release followed by prolonged release pattern. The immuno-adjuvant ability of various formulations was determined on the basis of specific antibody titer observed in serum and secretions of mice. In vivo immunogenicity studies showed increased anti-HBsAg titer with TCC-CMC coated PLGA microspheres as compared to other coated and uncoated PLGA microspheres. To conclude, TCC-CMC coated PLGA microspheres could be a promising carrier targeted delivery for HBsAg in nasal mucosa. Download
    • Antiparkinsonian Drug Utilization Pattern and ADR Monitoring In a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital: A Hospital Based Observational Study

      Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder represented by tetrad of symptoms such as bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity and gait disturbances. It results from the degeneration of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra in midbrain. This study was done to determine the prescribing pattern of antiparkinsonian drugs and associated adverse drug reactions in patients. Materials & methods: Data was collected from the case sheets in retrospective manner from Department of neurology of IMS & SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar, India. The demographic profile, disease duration, symptoms, categories of drug, adverse drug reaction if any were noted and analyzed. Results: Male predominance was seen. A majority of patients were between 51 and 80 years and most of the patients had onset of disease between 51 and 80 years. The common presenting symptoms were rigidity, tremor and bradykinesia. The commonest category of drug prescribed was levodopa either as monotherapy or in combination with other agents. Levodopa induced dyskinesia was the most common adverse drug reaction. The number of adverse drug reactions was significantly higher among patients receiving combination therapy. Conclusion: This study enlightens our knowledge regarding the utilization profile of antiparkinsonian drugs and related adverse drug reactions. Download
    • Hospital Acquired Infections in Different Wards of Patna Medical College & Hospital

      Nosocomial infection - also called “hospital acquired infection” this includes infections acquired in the hospital but appearing after discharge, and also occupational infections among staff of the facility. The most common types of Nosocomial infections that could occur in a hospital are surgical wound and other soft tissue infections, Urinary tract infections, Respiratory infections, Gastroenteritis, Meningitis. Naturally this work was undertaken with a view to study the problems of postoperative sepsis and other types of infection during hospitalization period and to express more knowledge over this subject. The samples of Pus, Urine, Sputum and Swab Samples from the different parts of the hospitals were collected. These were then cultured into the different media. After the specific duration the cultural and morphological characters were noted. The organism were identified on the basis of characters of the colony, Gram staining, Motility test, Biochemical reactions & coagulase tests. In Burn wound infection it was observed that most sensitive antibiotics against all above mention organism were Piperacillin, Gentamysin, Amikacin. In Noscomial urinary tract infection E. coli was the most common microorganism isolated and showed most sensitivity to Ceftazidime. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism isolated from surgical wards and it was most sensitive with the Cefotaxime. From respiratory tract infection most common organism was Staphylococcus aureus and most sensitive antibiotics was Imipenem. Download
    • Isolated Bacterial Pathogens In Urinary Tract Infection and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern In Hospital

      Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is commonest infections encountered in hospitals despite the widespread availability of antimicrobial agents UTI has become difficult to treat because of appearance of pathogens with Poly Antimicrobial antibiotics resistant bacteria which is emerging. Objectives: The aim and objectives of this study were to identify the prevalent etiological Bacterial pathogens of the UTI and to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of pathogens isolated. Methodology: The present study was a cross sectional study carried out in a Narayan Medical College and Hospital Jamuhar, Sasaram in department of microbiology. From December 2010 to march 2012. Total 258 urine samples were tested bacteriologically and for antibiotic susceptibility using standard procedures. Results: Out of 258 urine samples 142 (55%) patients tested positive for culture out of 142 samples 125 gram negative bacteria 17 gram positive bacteria isolated, most commonly associated bacteria isolated were E.coli (57.60% ) followed by and Klebsiella spp (16.90%) Enterobacter spp (7.04%),proteus(5.63%),pseudomonas sp (3.52%) citrobacter(2.81%)etc. amongst the gram negative bacilli .Amongst the gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (8.45 %) was commonest. E. coli which was the main isolate identified was found to be highly susceptible to Meropenem(80.78%) Amikacin (70.4%) followed by Ciprofloxacin (68.14%) norfloxacin (80.92%) and Nitrofurantoin (48.58%). Ceftriaxone (68.74%),ceftazidime(70.42%) etc. Download
    • Anthelmintic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Tectonia Grandis

      Tectonia Grandis Linn. Belonging to family Verbenaceae commonly known as Teak or sagwan. It is commonly found in India and other south Asian countries. Teak is also considered as a major constituent in many folklore medicines. Medicinally it has various pharmacological activities. The present study was done with the aim to evaluate anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of bark of Tectonia grandis Linn. by using adult earthworm pheritima posthuma.Various concentration of extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Ivermectin was used as a reference standard and tween 80 in saline as a control group. Download
    • Formulation and Evaluation of Rizatriptan Benzoate Orodispersible Tablets

      Oral disintegrating tablets have emerged as an alternative to the conventional oral dosage forms to improve the patient compliance. Due to problem in swallowing ability with age, the paediatric and geriatric patients complain of difficulty to take conventional solid dosage forms. The ODT’s are solid dosage forms that dissolve or disintegrate rapidly in the oral cavity. This results in solution or suspension without the need of water. The main objective of this work is to formulate and evaluate Rizatriptan Benzoate ODT’s using different concentration of super disintegrating agents like croscarmellose, Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG), Crospovidone, Yellow potato starch. In this study uses different concentrations of diluents like Spry Dried Lactose, Avicel, Mannitol to optimize diluents concentration. After optimizing diluents concentration the study is continued by using different super disintegrating agents. Tablets were prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for hardness, thickness, friability, disintegration time, and percentage of drug release. The results indicated that formulation prepared with Crospovidone and Avicel: Mannitol (30:70) was found to be optimised which provides maximum drug release(100%) and minimum disintegration time (less than 10 second). Download
    • Leptin Association in Disease and Disorders

      Leptin, a peptide molecule first identified through its role in the hypothalamus regulating food intake and body weight. In addition to the adipose tissue, leptin is expressed in lymphoid tissues, placenta, ovaries, mammary epithelium and bone marrow. Leptin binds to leptin receptor (ObR), which was first isolated from the choroid plexus by expression cloning strategies. ObRs (6 isoforms) are located in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues and show structural similarity with cytokines. Most of the physiological actions of leptin including feeding and energy balance. The other roles of leptin are in reproduction, thermogenesis, synaptic plasticity and neuroprotective effects. In conclusion, this review discusses leptinsignaling in different brain areas and sheds light on the involvement of leptin in neurodegenerative disorders. Leptin has neuroplastic and neurotrophic effects and can be definitely useful for treating such diseases. Leptin may have an additional benefit as an insulin sensitizer but, further research is required to elucidate whether leptin sensitizers will be useful and if leptin has a major role in treating brain disorders. Better understanding of the mechanisms mediating leptin's neurodevelopmental actions and increased knowledge about the vulnerability of the brain to leptin level changes is needed. Download
    • Assessment of Drug Related Problems in Geriatrics with Polypharmacy and Risk Measurement

      Drug related problems are an essential term in the world of pharmaceutical care. Other terms can be used for the same concept, such as medication errors, but this term is different from drug related problems. The fact that the elderly take more medications for the treatment of several diseases makes them more susceptible to the occurrence of adverse reactions. The errors refer to the mistakes in the process that could lead to problems. Drug related problems can originate when prescribing, dispensing or taking/administering medicines. The aim of this study was to analyze the Drug related problems and usage of drugs among geriatric patients living at old age homes. The results of study shows that males (59.33%) are more affected with chronic diseases than females(41.67%). Drug related problems due to drug interactions followed by drug overdose. Most of the interventions for inappropriate drug contraindications, adverse drug reactions were rectified and improved(100%) followed by other problems. our study concluded that pharmacist can prevent clinical drug related problems by making a suitable intervention. Download
    • Genital Fistula A Case Series Report from A Teaching Hospital In Roraima, Brazil

      Objectives: Genital fistula is one of the most debilitating conditions affecting females in developing countries and occurs as a result of obstructed labor or gynecological surgeries. The objective of this study was to review the cases of genital fistulae at a teaching hospital in Roraima, Brazil. Methods: Sixteen cases of genital fistulae were treated over a period of six years from 2008 to 2013. These included 15 cases of genitourinary fistulae (vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) = 14, ureterovaginal fistula (UVF) = 1) and one rectovaginal fistula (RVF). Results: The most common cause of fistula formation was total abdominal hysterectomy for the treatment of uterine fibroids (13/16, 81%). The VVFs were all supratrigonal in location and measured from 0.3 to 0.6 cm in length. Fifty percent of the VVFs (7/14) were treated using the transvaginal approach (Latzko’s method), while 36% (5/14) were treated via the transabdominal route. The remaining two VVFs (14%) were treated conservatively using the endoscopic cauterization method. Conclusions: An overall success rate of 100% was observed of which 75% (12/16) were successfully repaired at the first attempt. Follow-up period ranged from seven months to six years and no further complications were noted. Download
    • Prostate cancer in Amazon native Indian: a case report

      Background: Prostate cancer is highly prevalent worldwide and its incidence shows marked disparities between different countries and races. Age, race/ethnicity, and family history are the strongest known risk factors for this neoplasm. The aim of the present report is to describe the clinical and prostatic characteristics in Amazon Indian men, belonging to the Yanomami ethnic group, which is one of the few indigenous groups in which incidence and prevalence rates of prostate cancer are the lowest in the world. Case presentation: A 47-year-old native Indian male of the Yanomami ethnic presented with obstructive voiding symptoms including intermittency, hesitancy and sensation of incomplete bladder emptying. He was not on medication and was otherwise in good health. Physical examination revealed normal genitalia; no hernias. Digital rectal exam showed 25 g prostate without nodularity. Urinalysis revealed parameters within clinically normal ranges. Conclusion: Though the incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer is the lowest among native American Indians, the novelty of the presented case lies less in the case being an incidence of prostate cancer, than in the case being diagnosed with the disease. It might be difficult for these indigenous people, leaving in a knit community with strong cultural beliefs, to travel to a diagnostic centre far away from the village, in a strange and perceivably intimidating environment. Nonetheless, the case definitely emphasizes that the cases of prostate cancer might be under-reported in these areas, due to socio-economic and geographical difficulties, and difficulty in accessing healthcare facilities, making diagnosis – and not incidence – rare. Download
    • Biological Overview on Azrines

      The azrines moiety is an important and showed some important biological activities. Recently, much attention has been focused on azrines derivatives for their scarcity of their pharmacological activities. Various substituted azrines derivatives were also reported to show antibacterial and cytotoxic properties. The combination of two or more heterocyclic and non-heterocyclic systems enhances or other substitution affect their biological profile than parent nuclei. We considered some compounds bearing azrines in their molecular framework. Download
    • Marketing Authorization of Homeopathic Medicinal Product in Europe: An Overview

      The Council of the European Communities stated in the preamble to a directive that homeopathy was officially recognized in certain member states. In any case it was prescribed and used in all member states. In order to harmonize the market of homeopathic products, the council, in Directive 92/73/EEC directed the member states to implement certain changes in their national legislation. Directive 92/73/EEC was replaced by Directive 2001/83/EC on the Community code relating to medicinal products for human use. Member states are required to ensure that homeopathic products (for oral or external use) can be registered by skipping the proof of therapeutic efficacy, provided that there is a sufficient degree of dilution to guarantee the safety of the product; in particular, the product may not contain either more than 1/10,000th of the mother tincture or more than 1/100th of the smallest dose used in medicine, with regard to active principles whose presence in a medicinal product results in the obligation to submit a doctor's prescription. Download
    • Formulation and Evaluation Of Mouth Dissolving Tablet Of Olanzapine By Coprocessing Superdisintegrants

      The scenario present in this article is to focus on areas of research in caner and its therapy. An outline is explained here related to cancer and its therapeutics. It is possible to design and construct targeted with least side effects system by application of nanotechnology. At Nano scale, novel properties are present with nanoparticle making them magic bullets to kill various diseases. Here it is explored that nanoparticles have so much potential to be used as carriers, selective, targeted system. In the recent years, due to lots of changes and advancement in technique, facility etc. scope for dosage form design has been widened. Download
    • Anticonvulsant Activity of Catharanthus Roseus Leaf

      Epilepsy is a neuropsychological disorder which causes seizures .The seizures are occurs due to imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. In the present study the Petroleum ether extract of Catharanthusroseus at the dose of 100,200 and 400 mg/kg was screened for anticonvulsant activity using pentylenetetrazole induced seizure test model. From present study it was observed that at the dose of 400mg/kg the petroleum ether extract showed better anticonvulsant activity. Download