• Formulation and Evaluation of BuccalFilms of Ranitidine Hydrochloride

      Buccal drug delivery system is been considered as a potential non invasive route of drug administration with several advantages viz prolonged therapeutic effect dose reduction improved bioavailability lesser side effects than conventional dosage forms etc. The present investigation involves formulation evaluation and comparison of formulated polymeric buccal patches using ranitidine HCL as model drug the formulations were prepared by solvent evaporation / casting method. The prepared buccal patches were evaluated for thickness, drug content uniformity, weight variation, folding endurance, swelling index, surface pH, surface morphology, in-vitro & ex-vitro drug release.In-vitro release studies were performed across cellophane membrane using Franz Diffusion Cell (FDC). The surface morphology of the patch was examined by Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM). Based on the physicochemical and in-vitro release study, formulation F3, F4 and F5 were chosen for further ex-vivo release studied. Ex- vivo permeation studied were carried out through buccal mucosa of pig using FDC. Drug release data were fitted to various pharmacokinetic model equations such as zero order kinetics, first order kinetics, Higuchi’s and korsmeyerPeppas model in order to find out mechanism of drug release. Download
    • Ethno-religious significance of sacred plants of District Kishtwar (J&K)

      Present study deals with the compilation, analysis and documentation of information on the sacred plants of District Kishtwar (J&K). A total of 56 species belonging to 55 genera and 31 families have been recorded. These species are distributed within different life forms viz. herbs (73.2%), shrubs (10.7%) trees (12.5%) and climbers (3.6%). Angiosperms is the dominant group with maximum number of sacred plants, while, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms are represented by one species each. The sacred plants and parts of plants utilized thereof are categorized on the basis of their socio-cultural perspective. Traditionally various parts of plants such as leaves (12 spp.), stem/branches (2 spp.), flowers (6 spp.), seeds/grains (16 spp.), fruits (8 spp.), bark (1 sp.), roots/rhizome (2spp.), stigma (1 sp.) and whole plants (10 spp.), are used in different religious ceremonies and social rites. Apart from sacred value, the study also contributed to the ethnomedicinal uses of such plants in the study area. There is a myth related to the sacred plants, if a plant is used for pooja, the same plant can be used as elixir of health. Sacred plants being integral part of biodiversity need proper attention in terms of conservation and sustainable utilization for the present and future use. So, the development of an appropriate strategy for conservation and sustainable utilization of sacred plants is suggested. Download
    • Review on Diabetics and Anti-Diabetic Drugs

      A very complex illness mainly caused by insulin deficit affecting world’s most of the population is Diabetes. The main types of the Diabetes are Insulin depended diabetes mellitus (IDDM)-Type 1 or Non-insulin depended diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)-Type 2. Also Gestational diabetes (GDM) is other type observed mainly in the women. Type 1 diabetes mostly affects young people (known as juvenile-diabetes mellitus) and develops ketoacidosis where insulin therapy is needed but is not taken. Insensibility to insulin is Type 2 which could be the result of these factors: secretion of abnormal insulin, manifestation and activity of insulin antagonists or damage of aimed tissues. Gestational diabetes (GDM) is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. There are wide groups of drugs are available for the treatment of diabetes. The present review found 78.3% patient adherence to antidiabetic drug therapy. Although different prevalence of adherence were seen for each factor studied, the association was not statistically significant. For the specific treatment health providers assess adherence of patients to drug therapy in the event of poor glucose control and presumed failure of the prescribed therapeutic regimen. The review snapshots the type of diabetes and the treatment of therein. Download