• RP-HPLC Method Development And Validation For Simultaneous Estimation of Artemether and Lumefantrine in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

      The importance of Antimalarial drugs are increasing day by day & used for method development by reverse phase HPLC. In literature survey few analytical methods have been reported for determination of drug out of which some are time consuming and costly. So this research work is dedicated to develop simple, efficient, Economical, fast, reliable and new method for estimation of Selected drug. RP-HPLC analysis was performed on the Grace C-18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm), 5 µm particle size and using Acetonitrile: Potassium Phosphate buffer (60:40v/v) as mobile phase; flow rate was adjusted to 1 ml/min. The detection was carried out at 215 nm. The average retention times of Artemether and Lumefantrine was observed 8.11 min and 10.25 min at 215 nm wavelength respectively. Linearity was observed in the concentration ranges of 2–10µg/ml (r2 = 0.999) for ART and 12 - 60 µg/ml (r2 = 0.999) for LUME. The method has been successively applied for the determination of ARTEMETHER and LUMAFANTRINE in tablet formulation. There was no interference from the excipients commonly present in the tablet. Accuracy of the method was studied by the recovery studies at three different levels 80 %, 100 % and 120 % level. The % recovery was found to be within the limits of the acceptance criteria with average recovery of 97-105%. The method was found to be accurate, precise and specific for estimation of Artemether and Lumefantrine drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms Download
    • Formulation and Evaluation of Curcumin Loaded Gastro-Retentive Multi particulate Drug Delivery System

      To develop and optimize a multiparticulate gastro-retentive floating dosage form of Curcumin with targeted and sustained release characteristics. Curcumin give protective effect against Inflammation and Cancer but the physicochemical properties of the molecules leads to poor solubility and stability. Aqueous solubility was enhanced by complex formation with Hydroxypropyl β-Cyclodextrin (HP β-CD). This complex with enhanced solubility profile was further used to prepare multiparticulate floating pellets. Floating pellets of Curcumin HP β-CD complex were prepared by Extrusion-Spheronization technique using Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K100 M) as low density controlled release polymer, Ethyl cellulose as a release retardant polymer and Sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent. The formulations were evaluated for In vitro Drug release, Buoyancy and Surface morphology study. The investigation revealed that floating pellets of Batch B3 possessed optimum formulation characteristics. The drug release from pellets was Non fickian and sufficiently sustained for 12 hr. This study indicates that multiparticulate gastro-retentive floating dosage form of Curcumin HP β-CD complex with sustained release characteristics can be safely and effectively used to treat Gastric cancer. Download
    • Osmotically Controlled Oral Drug Delivery Systems – A Review

      Osmotic drug delivery systems are new approach for a modified release dosage form. Various innovations and patents available for various types of osmotic drug delivery system. The review is concerned with the drug release study of tablets coated with walls of controlled porosity. Drugs can be delivered in a controlled pattern over a long period of time by osmotic process. These devices are the most promising strategy and most reliable controlled drug delivery system as oral drug delivery systems. In this paper, mechanism of osmosis, principle of osmosis, factors affecting drug release, types of pumps and materials used, evaluation, various types of osmotic drug delivery systems and the basic components have been discussed briefly. Download
    • Formulation Development and in vitro Evaluation of Sustained Release Tablets of Telmisartan by Solid Dispersion Technology

      In the present work ,an attempt was made to formulate sustained release tablets of Telmisartan by solid dispersion technique for improving solubility Telmisartan using PEG 4000 and PVP K30.The Telmisartan tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using HPMC K4M as sustained release polymer in different concentrations .The prepared tablets were evaluated for various physiochemical parameters, In vitro Drug release study was carried out in phosphate Buffer PH 6.8using USP TYPE II paddle apparatus. Increase in HPMC concentrations resulted in a significant decrease in Telmisartan release .tablets containing 75 mg of HPMC K4M (f1and f4) shows 78% and 70% drug release upto 9 hr. Tablet containing 90 mg of HPMC K4M (f2and f5) shows 80 % and 81%drug release upto 9 hr. and tablet containing 105 mg HPMC K 4M (f3 and f6)shows highest drug release 91%and83% compared to other formulations. the in vitro data is fitted in to different kinetic models like zero order ,first order, korsmeyer and matrix plot. From this study, it was clarified that solid dispersion technique was one of the promising sustained release system applying for the poorly water soluble drugs. Download
    • Formulation, Development and Evaluation of Orodispersible Tablets of Lansoprazole

      The purpose of the present research work was to prepare & evaluate the ODT of Lansoprazole using Indion-414 & Indion-234 by Direct Compression method. Lansoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) which is used in the management of acid-related disorders. Primarily powder blend (Drug & Excipients) was evaluated for precompression parameters and further tablet was compressed by direct compression method. Then the formulations were evaluated for weight variation, disintegration time, hardness, friability, drug content, water absorption ratio, wetting time, in vitro disintegration and in vitro dissolution. All the formulations showed low weight variation & from that F5 batch of Lansoprazole containing Indion- 234 (3% w/w) have less DT (12 sec), wetting time 18 sec % Drug release in 60 sec is 83% as compared to Indion-414 Dt Time was 17 sec. This work help in understanding the effect of formulation processing variables especially the resin which is used as a tablet disintegrant & the cost of resin is less as compared to conventional superdisintegrants. Also it gives rapid absorption, improved bioavailability, effective therapy and patient compliance. Download
    • Assessment of Gastric Amyloidosis in Patient with Abdominal Distension using Endoscopic Ultrasound

      Amyloidosis is a rare disease caused by extracellular deposits of insoluble fibrillar proteins in various organs and tissues. There are different forms of amyloidosis distinguished by the type of protein fibrils, by the sites of deposition and by associated conditions. Gastrointestinal involvement is common both in primary and secondary amyloidosis, while isolated gastrointestinal amyloidosis is rare. In this study the patient was referred for the treatment having abdominal distension. The pathology showed chronic mild-moderate inflammation of the gastric body mucosa associated with interstitial amyloidosis, with accompanying Helicobacter pylori infection. The treatment was given for the mentioned symptoms. But after the pathological investigation & Endoscopic Ultrasound study it had confirmed that the patient was having Amyloidosis. In the Endoscopic Ultrasound observation of gastric mucosa and thickening of sub mucosa was seen. Along with disappearance of normal levels and low echo in gastric amyloidosis. Download
    • A Study On Lipid Profiles In Chronic Liver Diseases

      In chronic liver disease decreased biosynthetic capacity of liver is observed hence unusually low levels of cholesterol and triglycerides are found. So the study was designed to observe the lipid profiles in the chronic liver diseases patients. The aim of the study is to find changes in lipid profile and metabolism within the patients suffering from chronic liver diseases. The patients admitted to hospitals and diagnosed with the chronic liver diseased were selected for the study. The study found that the there is changes in the lipid levels in the chronic liver diseases. Dyslipidaemia is the common finding in this type of conditions. It helps in diagnosis of severity of liver disease and also acts as a good predictive indication. The screening for the same is important for intervention with appropriate therapy to prevent cardiovascular events. Download
    • Formulation and Evaluation of Orally Fast Dispersing Tablets of Terbutaline Sulphate

      The present research work was undertaken to develop mouth dissolving tablet of terbutaline sulphate with benefits to the patients. Superdisintegrants such as Crospovidone, Crosscarmellose and Sodium Starch Glycolate were used. A combination of two different diluents in various concentrations was used along with superdisintegrants. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time and the selected formulation was compared with in vitro dissolution test. It was concluded that a mixture of diluents improves disintegrate rapidly and provide rapid onset of action as compare with conventional formulation. Download
    • Development and Characterization of Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery System of Tizanidine Hydrochloride

      The buccal region offers an attractive route of administration for systemic drug delivery. The mucosa has a rich blood supply and provides rapid absorption for drugs than oral route Tizanidine hydrochlorideis a non-selective, α-2 adrenergic agonist receptor. Tizanidine hydrochloride undergoes first-pass hepatic metabolism by oral route and exhibits only 40% bioavailability. Because of poor bioavailability of Tizanidine hydrochloride by oral route, there is a need to increase its bioavailability by formulating it into buccal dosage forms. Hence, Tizanidine hydrochloride is a suitable drug for buccal dosage forms and may provide a better therapeutic profile than oral route. A number of buccal mucoadhesive patches of Tizanidine hydrochloride were prepared by solvent casting method using HPMC, Hydroxy ethyl cellulose, Carboxy methyl cellulose sodium, Carbopol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone as polymer. Propylene glycol was used as plasticizers, while the solvent chosen was water. The films were uniform and translucent. These were having good strength and visually smooth surfaced. The films were evaluated on the basis of their release characteristics, swelling Index, surface pH, folding endurance, film thickness, weight uniformity, drug content uniformity, Bursting Strength. In-vitro release studies were conducted for Tizanidine hydrochloride loaded patches in phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. Patches exhibited drug release in the range of 75.79% to 93.98% in 7th hours. The best formulation (F3) exhibit in vitro drug releases 93.17±1.56 %. This may improve the bioavailability of the Tizanidine hydrochlorideis a non-selective, α-2 adrenergic agonist receptor. Download
    • A New Era in Thalassemia Disorder An Overview

      Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production of hemoglobin. Haemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to cells throughout the body. A hemoglobin molecule has sub-units commonly referred to as alpha and beta. Both sub-units are necessary to bind oxygen in the lungs properly and deliver it to tissues in other parts of the body. The alpha chain is an important component of fetal hemoglobin (which is usually made before birth) and hemoglobin A and hemoglobin A2 (which are present after birth). Beta thalassemia is a fairly common blood disorder worldwide. Thousands of infants with beta thalassemia are born each year. Beta thalassemia occurs most frequently in people from Mediterranean countries, North Africa, the Middle East, India, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia. Thalassemia occurs when there is an abnormality or mutation in one of the genes involved in hemoglobin production. A physical exam may reveal a swollen (enlarged) spleen. Treatment for thalassemia major often involves regular blood transfusions and folate supplements. Untreated, thalassemia major leads to heart failure and liver problems, and makes a person more likely to develop infections.Avoid excess iron. Unless doctor recommends it, don't take vitamins or other supplements that contain iron. Eating a balanced diet that contains plenty of nutritious foods can help you feel better and boost your energy. Signs and symptoms are usually mild with thalassemia minor and little, if any, treatment is needed. Occasionally, you may need a blood transfusion, particularly after surgery, after having a baby or to help manage thalassemia complications. Download
    • Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using leaflet extract of Nephrolepis exaltata L. and evaluation of antibacterial activity against human and plant pathogenic bacteria

      Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using leaflet extract of a fern Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) which reduces silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-Visible spectrophotometer and UV-Visible absorption spectra of the reaction mixture showed λmax at 420 nm. The average particles size was confirmed by XRD peaks was 24.76 nm. SEM image showed aggregates of spherical silver nanoparticles. Antibacterial efficiency of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by disc diffusion assay method. Silver nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumonia NCIM 2719, Proteus morgani NCIM 2719, Corynebacterium diptheriae, Pseudomonas testesteroniae NCIM 5098, Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2063, Escherichia coli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae. This cost-effective, eco-friendly and easily scald up biosynthesis method of silver nanoparticles using leaflet extract of a fern Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) will be compatible for pharmaceutical and medical applications. Download
    • A Case-Control Study of Stomach Cancer In Bangalore, India

      A case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for stomach cancer in a Hospital based cancer registry (HBCR) in India, at Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology. HBCR data was used to identify cases of stomach cancer, diagnosed between January 2011 to June 2011. Patients accompany used as (not only stomach cancer) controls matched according to sex. A total of 175 cases and 175 controls were interviewed. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with the risk of stomach cancer. Among demographic characters significantly increased risk was found for: education and economical status (OR 0.2, p <0.01 and 9.9, p<0.01). Dietary factors that were significantly associated with an increased risk were food grains other than rice, ragi, (OR 0.2, p<0.05), salted meat fish and mutton (OR 1.6, p<0.05). The consumption of vegetables, fruits, egg and fruit juice showed a protective effect. It follows that a developing economy and improvement in living standards, with an associated increased intake of fruit and vegetables and reduced consumption of salt, can contribute to a reduction in the incidence of stomach cancer. Download