• Pharmacognostic and Antimicrobial Screening of Leaf Extracts of Annona muricata

      Background: Medicinal plants have continued to attract attention in the global search for effective antimicrobial agents that can combat resistant pathogens that have been rendering many conventional drugs obsolete in the treatment of infections. Aim: To determine the pharmacognostic and antimicrobial effect of the leaf of Annona muricata. Materials and methods: The pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaf of A.muricatawas carried out using microscopic, macroscopic, chemomicroscopic, and phytochemical methods; while the antimicrobial activity was determined using agar cup diffusion technique. Results: The Chemomicroscopic evaluation revealed the presence of lignin, starch, and cellulose. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and carbohydrates. The extract showed varied inhibitory effects against the test-microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillusniger and Candida albicans at concentrations 10-100 g/ml. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated the antimicrobial potential of Annona muricata and the basis for its inclusion in herbal preparations used to treat infectious diseases. Download
    • Metabolic Control Improves Baroreflex Sensitivity In Diabetic Rats

      Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of glycemic control on the baroreflex sensitivity, in rats having uncontrolled diabetes. Methods: Diabetes was induced in healthy male Wistar albino rats by a single intraperitonial injection of Streptozotocin (STZ). Experiments were conducted eight weeks after induction of diabetes. The baroreflex was evaluated by measuring the changes in heart rate (HR) with changes in arterial blood pressure induced by bolus injections of phenylephrine (vasoconstrictor) and sodium nitroprusside (vasodilator). Results: After 8 weeks of STZ administration the reflex bradycardia and tachycardia response to hypertension and hypotension respectively were impaired in the diabetic group but improved after one month of Insulin therapy. The decreased body weight, heart rate and blood pressure and raised blood sugar in diabetic rats were improved by Insulin therapy. Insulin significantly reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine levels in diabetic rats. Conclusions: Results suggest that glycemic control with Insulin improves the altered baroreflex sensitivity in diabetic rats possibly through maintaining endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities and decreasing cytokine levels. Download
    • Pharmacognostical Investigations on Medicinal Plants

      Plants have always been used by humans to find cures for its diseases. After a prosperous period for synthetic molecules, the craze for natural plant substances is now a fact. The expanding market for medicinal plants, because of globalization, requires technical botanical identifications, standardized, to allow a secure commerce. The aim of our work is to establish a pharmacognostical standard methodology, through various examples, leading to useful standards trade of medicinal plants. This study, divided into three parts, include macroscopic and microscopic analysis of Origanum compactum, Opuntia ficus indica, Vitex agnus castus and Stephania tetrandra. Another part of this work concerns the screening phytochemicals such as TLC for Viburnum, Hieracium pilosella and Secale, HPLC chromatographic profiles for Vitex agnus castus and Stephania tetrandra and UV dosage on Hieracium pilosella, which allowed us to highlight the main phytochemical markers for each plant, for example. These results provide on the one hand, qualitative characterization by TLC and also quantitatively by HPLC and UV dosage. The last part of our work concerns the evaluation of physico-chemical characteristics of Hieracium pilosella, Piper nigrum and Piper longum. This work shows the usefulness of such analysis to create a standardized method for botanical and chemical identification, always necessary before using medicinal plants. Download
    • Development and Characterization of Emulgels For Treatment of Chronic Wounds

      This study was conducted to develop an emulgel formulation for wound healing using Carbopol 940 as the gelling agent and isopropyl myristate as the oily phase. The prepared emulgels were evaluated regarding their rheological behavior and zeta potential. Accelerated stability analyses are a common approach for predicting the long-term stability of pharmaceutical formulations. Five formulations differing only in the proportions of the gel and emulsion were stored for 90 days under two different temperature-controlled conditions (-5 ºC ± 2 ºC/ 45 ºC ± 2 ºC). Zeta potential and rheology measurements indicated that formulations F2 and F3 showed better characteristics for use in treating chronic wounds. Stability analyses showed that the rheological behavior and zeta potential of all of the prepared emulgels remained unchanged during storage for 90 days. As a general conclusion, the results indicated that the emulgel formulations were successful concerning all of the parameters evaluated for wound healing. Download
    • Isolation and Characterization of Anti Sickling Bioactive Compounds from Seeds of Picralima Nitida Stapf (Apocynaceae)

      Aim: To isolate and Characterize the anti-sickling bioactive compounds of Ethanol fraction of Picralima nitida seeds. Methods: The fresh matured fruits (8 kg) of P. nitida were cut into transverse section to expose the seeds, The seeds were air-dried and then pulverized into a homogenous powder, The organoleptic properties (taste, colour, odor, texture) of the powdered P. nitida were determined using the sensory organs. A 2.5 kg pulverized seeds were extracted with methanol and concentrated in a rotary evaporator to yield a dried residue. The methanol extract of Picralima nitida was then defatted using n-hexane. The extract was successively fractionated with different solvents, chloroform, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and 50% ethanol in increasing order of polarity to obtain the chloroform fraction (CF), dichloromethane fraction (DCMF), ethyl acetate fraction (EF) and ethanol fraction. Antisickling activity tests were carried out on all the fractions at the same time, comparing their antisickling activities with that of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (positive control). The Ethanol Fraction which has the greatest anti sickling activity was subjected to further fractionation using silica gel column chromatography. The fractions based on bioactivity-guide, were eluted with gradient mixtures followed by a preparative TLC using EtOAc:MeOH (2:3) as solvent system to get compounds 1 and 2.The structures of the isolated active compounds were elucidated using spectrophototropic analyses. Result: The two compounds were identified as (19∝)-16, 17-didehydro-19-methyl-oxayohimbin-16-Carboxylic acid methyl ester (Ajmalicine) and (19∝)-19-methyl-2-oxoformosanan-16-carboxylic acid methyl ester (Ajmalicine Oxindole B). Ajmalicine showed significant antisickling effect (97 %) when compared to the standard drug (50 %). Ajmalicine Oxindole B Showed (90 %) antisickling effect at concentration 2.5 mg/ mL at 90 minutes incubation in HbSS blood. Conclusion The seeds of Picralima nitida possesses antisickling effect and could serve as a lead to produce further antisickling drug. Download