• Monitoring of Oxidative Stress in Alcoholic Liver Disease

      The close association between oxidative stress and lifestyle-related diseases has become well known. Chronic consumption of alcoholic beverages is a primary cause of liver injury. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to initiation and progression of liver injury. A study was carried out in 30 cirrhotic patients with chronic alcoholism of 30-55 years of age. The blood samples were collected for the estimation of the biochemical factors. The serum obtained from samples was subjected to estimation of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Plasma Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Gamma Glutamyl transferase. The level of the ALT, AST, MDA & GGT were significantly found increased in alcoholic liver diseases patients when compared to normal patients. This concludes that increased oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant defence system in alcoholic liver diseases patients. Download
    • A Review on King of Bitters: Andrographis paniculata

      Kalmegh, The King of Bitter is traditionally used plants in ayurvedic system of medicine.Its biological name is Andrographis paniculata (Nees) belonging to the family Acanthaceae. From the beginning, it has been used in ayurveda as anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Antidaibetic, Antispasmodic, anti-carcinogenic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, hepatoprotective, nematocidal, anti-HIV and in many infectious diseases rangning from malaria to dysentery. Medicinal value of this plan is due to the presence a diterpenoid derivative Angrapholide and Neoandrographolide.Traditionally, its decoction has been used as hepatoprotective in treatment of jaundice.The roots of the plant was used to prepare decoction and thus the chemical acting as hepatoprotective must be present in roots of the plant. Download
    • Formulation And Evaluation of Gastroretentive Floating Matrix Tablets of Metronidazole Using Khaya Ivorensis Gum

      This study was carried out to design and evaluate gastro-retentive floating matrix tablets (GFMTs) of metronidazole formulated using Khaya ivorensis gum. Granules were prepared by wet granulation technique using the gum at varying concentrations (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/w). Sodium bicarbonate (30%) and tartaric acid (5%) were incorporated as the gas generating agent. Formulations were either prepared alone with the Khaya ivorensis or with the addition of 1.0% w/w of acrylatemethacrylate copolymer. All granules were evaluated for micromeritic properties and compressed at an optimized compression pressure of 30 arbitrary units on the tableting machine load scale. Tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, floating lag time, in vitro buoyancy test and drug release profiles. Release data were subjected to analysis by zero order flux, first order, Higuchi square root of time relationship and Korsmeyer equations. Results revealed that all formulated gastroretentive floating matrix granules (GFMG) were free flowing with angle of repose and Carr’s index ≤ 29.1o and ≤ 19% respectively. The floating lag time for GFMTs was ≤ 725 seconds. The in vitro buoyancy test of GFMTs formulations using the gum alone (i.e. without the incorporation of acrylatemethacrylate copolymer) were <12 h while those with acrylatemethacrylate copolymer were >12 h. All GFMG were compressible with tablet hardness between 14.1 – 45.7N while percentage friability was ≤ 0.97%. There was a significant difference in tablet hardness with increase in binder concentration (p<0.05). All formulations fitted well into Higuchi model release kinetics. Formulations KI - K3 have their exponent values <0.45, hence their release mechanism was by Fickian diffusion while for K4 and K5 their exponent values > 0.45, therefore the release mechanism for all these formulations was by non Fickian diffusion. The conclusion is that GFMTs of metronidazole have been developed using Khaya ivorensis gum which can sustain drug formulation for up to 10h. Download
    • Studies On Effect of Guava Leaves Extract Against Selected Enteric Bacteria

      In the present work we evaluated the antibacterial activity of crude Guava (Psidium guajava) leaves extract in comparison with Standard antibiotics Cholistin, Erythromycein, Ciprofloxin, Methicillin, Ampicillin and Cephalosporin. For the present study following bacterial cultures were used those were Salmonella typhi (8 strains), Shigella dysenteriae (7 strains), Salmonella paratyphi A (5 strains), Salmonella paratyphi B (7strains), E.coli (4 strains), Citrobactor spp. (3 strains). The antimicrobial activity of Crude Guava leaves extract was represented in table 1. Guava leaves extract showed highest antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi strain I (ZOI-20mm), Shigella dysenteriae strain I (ZOI- 15mm), Salmonella paratyphi A strain II (ZOI-18mm), Salmonella paratyphi B strain V (ZOI- 20mm), E.coli strain III (ZOI- 14mm) and Citrobactor spp. strain III (ZOI- 20mm). Salmonella typhi strain V was observed sensitive to antibiotic Ciprofloxin (ZOI- 12mm). Shigella dysenteriae strain IV was observed sensitive to antibiotic Ampicillin (ZOI- 13mm) and Erythromycein (ZOI- 16mm). Salmonella paratyphi A strain III was observed sensitive to antibiotic Ciprofloxin (ZOI- 15mm) and Ampicillin (ZOI- 14mm). Salmonella paratyphi B strain V was observed sensitive to antibiotic Ciprofloxin (ZOI- 18mm) and Ampicillin (ZOI- 15mm). E.coli strain I was observed sensitive to antibiotic Cholistin (ZOI- 14mm), Ampicillin (ZOI-10mm), Cephalosporin (ZOI- 17mm) and Erythromycein (ZOI- 15mm). Citrobactor spp. strain I, was observed sensitive to antibiotic Cholistin (ZOI- 11mm). The results of this study showed that some pathogenic enteric bacteria were observed resistant to standard antibiotics but they were observed sensitive to the crude Guava leaves extract. The results of the present study also support the medicinal usage of the Guava leaves. Download
    • Self Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Emesis

      Sparingly water soluble drugs such as domperidone offer challenges in developing a drug product with adequate bioavailability. The objective of the present work was to develop and characterize solid self emulsifying drug delivery system (S-SEDDS) of domperidone for filling into soft gelatine capsule. Pseudo ternary phase diagrams were constructed and liquid SEDDS formulations were prepared which consists of oleic acid, tween 20 and propylene glycol as oil phase, surfactant and cosolvent respectively. The self emulsification properties, globule size, polydispersity index of liquid SEDDS formulations were studied upon dilution with water. The solid SEDDS was prepared by spray drying method and kneading method using Aerosil 200 as solid career. The solid state characterization of the solid SEDDS was performed by SEM, DSC, and X-ray powder diffraction. The dissolution characteristics of solid SEDDS was investigated and compared with liquid SEDDS formulations and commercial formulation to ascertain the impact on self emulsifying properties following conversion. The results indicated that solid SEDDS showed comparable rate and extent of drug dissolution in a discriminating dissolution medium as liquid SEDDS indicating that the self emulsifying properties of SEDDS were unaffected following conversion. Also, the rate and extent of drug dissolution for solid intermediates was significantly higher than commercial tablet formulation. The results from this study demonstrate the potential use of SEDDS as a means of improving solubility, dissolution, and concomitantly the bioavailability. Download
    • The Purview of Regulatory Affairs in the Pharmaceutical Industry

      A regulatory affair is a profession which acts as a liaison between the pharmaceutical organization and drug regulatory authorities across the world. Each and every country had their regulations which are different to each other; Regulatory professional will collect that information and implements in the company to get their drug marketing approval. The main origin of the formation of this department is various drug disasters happened before Federal Food drug and cosmetic Act. Delay in application filling and marketing approval causes huge monetary losses to the company regulatory professional will try to decrease the time between those. A regulatory professional role lies in product development, clinical trials, and in research and development. Download