• Evaluation of Sustainability of An Outreach Dental Centre: A Refined Break Even Analysis

      Introduction – Outreach centres provide dental services at subsidised rates in urban and rural areas but sustainability of these centres remains a question. Methodology- Functional Outreach rural centre of a private institution providing oral health care services was selected for the study. Retrospective fiscal data was collected for past financial year. Cost analysis was done using a contribution method. Results- Break even existed with some amount generated as a marginal benefit. Conclusion – Unit was found to be self-sustainable and generated some extra income which would help in the revision of the policy regarding the patients being treated for free in the outreach rural centre. Download
    • Formulation, Development and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Film of an Antihypertensive Drug

      Hypertension is a major cause of concern not just in the elderly but also in the youngsters. An effort was made to formulate a fast dissolving film(FDF) containing Indipamide which is used in the treatment of hypertension with a view to improve the onset of action, therapeutic efficacy, patient compliance and convenience. The major challenge in formulation of oral films of Indipamide is that it shows very less solubility in the pH range of 3–9. Various film forming agents and polyhydric alcohols were evaluated for optimizing composition of fast dissolving films. Fast dissolving films were formulated using solvent casting method. Optimized formulations were evaluated for their weight, thickness, folding endurance, appearance, tensile strength, and disintegration time and dissolution profile. Download
    • Study of Neusiln UFL2 and β-Cyclodexrtin as Solid Carriers in Solid Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System of Atorvastatin Calcium Prepared by Spray Drying

      The main objectives of this work was, to study the effect of β-cyclodextrin and Neusilin UFL2 as a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic solid carrier respectively in solidification of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system prepared by spray drying technique. The liquid SMEDDS consisted of poorly water-soluble drug Atorvastatin calcium (10mg), and Capmul MCM (200mg) and Tween 20 (800mg) as oil and surfactant respectively. This formulation was spray dried by using the solid carrier in various formulations to carrier ratio. These spray dried formulation were characterized for flow properties, drug content, reconstitution and solid state properties. In-vitro dissolution test was carried out to observe the effect of solidification on release of drug and compare it with liquid SMEDDS and marketed formulation. The liquid SMEDDS to solid carrier ratio of 1:0.5 showed passable flow properties and high drug content. DSC, PXRD revealed that the drug in the solid SMEDDS was disperse in amorphous form while SEM results indicated that the particle formed were spherical with liquid formulation loading. In-vitro drug dissolution study indicated that after solidification the drug release was enhanced as compared to plain drug and marketed formulation. After three month stability study solid SMEDDS did not show any drug precipitation as well as phase separation. Thus it can be concluded that the solidification of liquid SMEDDS using these carrier retain the original performance with enhance stability. Download
    • Antimicrobial Activity of Rose Geranium (Pelargonium roseum) Essential Oil on Bacteria of Veterinary Clinical Origin

      In the study on antimicrobial activity of rose geranium oil (GEO), 167 bacterial strains belonging to 22 genera and 49 species were tested. In total only seven strains were sensitive to GEO. Out of 15 reference strains included in the study only one (Streptococcus equi ssp. equi MTCC-3522) and six of the 120 isolates from clinically sick animals were found sensitive. None of the 26 isolates from environment (soil, water and air) and six from healthy animals was sensitive to GEO. All resistant strains (160) had minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) more than 2µL of GEO / mL of medium. Sensitive strains’ GEO MIC ranged between 0.2 µL/ mL to 2µL/ mL. The minimum MIC was for Pasteurella langaensis (0.2 µL/ mL) strain followed by strain of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi MTCC-3522 (0.4µL/ mL), Strept. intestnalis and Strept. pyogenes (0. 4µL/ mL), Strept. equi ssp. equi (0.8µL/ mL), Bacillus polymyxa (1.5 µL/ mL) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.0µL/ mL). The study emphasizes need for evolution of some short of central universally accepted guidelines to perform and report antimicrobial activity of herbal antimicrobials so that the comparable data can be analyzed for future meta-analytical and clinical purposes. Download
    • SMN2 Gene Based Treatments In Spinal Muscular Atrophy- A Review Of Recent Advancements

      Spinal muscle atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease with autosomal recessive inheritance which is pathologically characterized by degeneration of α motor neurons from the anterior horn of the spinal cord resulting in muscle weakness, muscle atrophy involving mainly muscles of the trunk. SMA is commonly divided into types 1 through 4. In humans, SMN genes, (SMN1 and SMN2) are located on chromosome 5 in close proximity to each other. It has been assumed that the SMN2 locus is derived from a (evolutionarily) recent duplication event of a genomic region spanning 500 kb. The role of SMN2 gene as a phenotypic modifier of SMA has been studied in great details recently. Each patient affected with SMA retains at least oneSMN2 copy. From this perspective, it can be said that SMA arises due to the inability of SMN2 gene to fully compensate for the lack of functional SMN protein resulting from the mutation of SMN1. In this review article, we will focus on three of the treatment strategies using SMN2 gene which have been used as treatment strategies by various techniques. These strategies are: i) inducing the expression of SMN2, ii) modulating splicing of SMN2 derived transcript, and iii) stabilizing the full length SMN2 derived mRNA and/or protein. Download
    • Cortical V/S Subcortical Dementias- A Comparative Review of Cognitive Functions

      BACKGROUND: The typical clinical features of AD are indicative of cortical dysfunction which are dyscalculia, dysphasias, dyspraxias and agnosias. Parallel to this, the clinical features of subcortical dementias, mainly reflect the subcortical areas affected which usually are personality changes and affective disorders and bradyphrenia. The neuropsychological deficits are also different in these dementias. In present review we will highlight these neuropsychological differences. METHODOLOGY: A detailed search of all the studies of cortical and subcortical dementias was done in all medical databases. All the studies involving neuropsychological aspects of cortical and subcortical dementias were included in the study. Major categories of neuropsychological aspects were separately categorized and compared between the subcortical and cortical dementias. RESULTS: Major neuropsychological categories identified were 1) Executive functions 2) Memory dysfunctions and 3) Perceptuo-motor dysfunctions. In memory, The differential effects of the test format is that in subcortical dementia the main difficulty is in retrieving information while in cortical dementia encoding or storage (or both) are thought to be defective. On the other hand, the visuo motor dysfunctions are far more severe in subcortical as compared to cortical dementias. Its cardinal features are: forgetfulness, i.e., difficulty in retrieving learned material; slowing of mental and motor processes; intellectual deterioration characterized by impaired ability to manipulate acquired knowledge to generate problem solving; impairment of arousal, attention, and motivation and affective changes (depression); and impairment of set-shifting. DISCUSSION: There are significant differences in various neuropsychological domains of cortical and subcortical dementias. Download
    • Formulation And Evaluation Of Bilayer Floating Tablets Of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride

      The objective of the present study was to develop a bilayer floating tablet for ciprofloxacin HCL using direct compression method. Bilayer floating tablets were designed to prolong gastric retention time and increase the bioavailability of the drug. Bilayer floating tablets contains of two layers, immediate release layer and controlled release layer. Immediate release layer contains sodium starch glycolate as a super disintegrating agent and controlled layer contains HPMC K grade polymers as controlled release polymers .Sodium bicarbonate is used as a gas generating agent. The tablets were evaluated for physic-chemical properties such as Bulk density, tap density, hausner’s ratio, compressibility index, angle of repose , hardness, thickness, friability, drug content, floating lag time , floating duration and in- vitro drug release by dissolution studies. FT-IR studies revealed that there was no interaction between the drug and polymer used in the study. The formulation F8 tablets showed controlled and complete drug released over a period of 12 hrs. Download