• Dietary Requirements for Parkinson’s Disease-A Review

      Parkinson’s disease is a gradually growing abnormality of the CNS (central nervous system). There is no definite causation and cure for this disease is known till date. It is a chronic disease and it mainly affects that portion, which is associated with the movement. There is no known remedy till date that can cure Parkinson’s disease (PD). The changing diet protocols for Parkinson’s disease works by restoring the normal biochemical level of the human body and also to promote good and healthy lifestyle. The most promising approach appears to be the use of antioxidants to slow the oxidation and damage to the substantia nigra. The most excellent diet guidance for most people with Parkinson's to have the right balance of nutrients from different food groups. That can be achieved by eating a well balanced diet, which will provide adequate levels of vitamins and minerals. It’s possible that additional nutritional approaches may be found in the future. Download
    • Dietary Requirements for Parkinson’s Disease-A Review

      Parkinson’s disease is a gradually growing abnormality of the CNS (central nervous system). There is no definite causation and cure for this disease is known till date. It is a chronic disease and it mainly affects that portion, which is associated with the movement. There is no known remedy till date that can cure Parkinson’s disease (PD). The changing diet protocols for Parkinson’s disease works by restoring the normal biochemical level of the human body and also to promote good and healthy lifestyle. The most promising approach appears to be the use of antioxidants to slow the oxidation and damage to the substantia nigra. The most excellent diet guidance for most people with Parkinson's to have the right balance of nutrients from different food groups. That can be achieved by eating a well balanced diet, which will provide adequate levels of vitamins and minerals. It’s possible that additional nutritional approaches may be found in the future. Download
    • A Review On Chromatographic and Spectrophotometric Methods for Estimation of Dapagliflozin and Glimepiride In Bulk and In Different Dosage Forms

      Dapagliflozin and Glimepiride are very effectively used as type II diabetes. They very potent inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and inhibiting sodium glucose transport protein 2 and its called SGLT2 inhibitors. They used to enhance glycemic control as well as reduce body weight and systolic & diastolic blood pressure. They are generally administered as tablets. This review entails different methods developed for determination of the Dapagliflozin and Glimepiride like UV-spectroscopy and liquid chromatography. Download
    • Comparative Assessment of Analytical Methods of Orally Disintegrated Tablet of Ondansetron

      Ondansetron ODT, most widely used anti-emetic drug, in this regard, the Research and Validation of reliable analytical method for determination. The main aim of present Research work to Validate a method for estimation of Ondansetron ODT by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. For Chromatographic determination, mixture of Potassium phosphate:acetonitrile(52:48) was used as mobile phase, the column having length of 4.6 mm × 25 cm and containing packing L7 which is maintained at 45 ± 1 ˚C temperature. The injection volume was 10 µl and the flow rate was 1.5 mL/min. The assay method was validated for analytical parameters such as linearity, accuracy, precision, system suitability, robustness and range. From the results it is concluded that, HPLC is less time consuming and cost reducing and the results obtained are more accurate, precise and reproducible as compared to UV Download
    • A Review on Saptrangi (Salacia oblonga Wall): A Medicinal Herb

      Salacia oblonga Wall, a native shrub also known as Saptrangi and Ponkoranti, belongs to the family Celastraceae, is distributed across the world. A large number of chemical constituents such as salacinol, kotalanol, neokotalanol, neosalacinol, and mangiferin are isolated from S. oblonga which show various pharmacological activities. Salacia oblonga Wall is being used in several herbal preparations for treating diabetes and obesity. It possess anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, antiperoxidative, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, nephroprotective and antimutagenic activities. This review focuses on the potential of Salacia oblonga wall in various human diseases and can be used as a promising herbal drug, for the benefit of mankind. Download
    • Estimation of Gallic Acid in the Seed Extracts of Syzygium cumini

      The aim of this work was to estimate the amount of gallic acid present in raw seed powder, and in the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Syzygium cumini seed by using reverse phase High pressure liquid chromatography. The method was carried out on a Phenomenex kromosil C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5µ) using mobile phase of 2ml orthophosphoric acid in 1000ml water and methanol with a gradient elution at the flow rate of 1 ml/min, with the detection wavelength at 272 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration showed a good linear relationship with correlation co-efficient of 0.999. The developed method has been validated as per ICH guidelines and the method has the advantage of being both rapid and easy and hence it can be applied for routine quality control analysis of herbal preparations containing Syzygium cumini constituents Download
    • Ocular Drug Delivery System & Role of Ocular Inserts In Eye Disorder Treatment: A Review

      Eye is the organ of human body having main function of vision. Ocular drug delivery is the alternative route for the systemic treatment of disease and also a route for the treatment of eye diseases such as conjunctivitis, keratitis etc. Ocular inserts are the one of the most useful and innovative technique for the treatment of eye diseases by increase contact time and providing control release of drug. This review is generated to provide an overview of ocular drug delivery including role of ocular inserts in treatment of eye disorders. Download
    • Analytical Quality by Design (QbD) Approach to RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation of Meloxicam

      Quality by Design (QbD) refers to a holistic approach towards drug development. Meloxicam is a Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) which acts by inhibition of prostaglandin synthetase (cyclooxygenase 1 and 2) leading to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, thereby exerts anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effects. Though, various analytical methods have been reported, but they are tedious, difficult to reproduce and time consuming. So there is need to develop a novel RP-HPLC method to overcome this problem. A simple, fast and robust HPLC analytical method was developed by employing experimental design. In experimental design, Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to study the significance of the method critical factors such as % composition of mobile phase, flow rate and wavelength on the response (asymmetric factor) was tested. The Reverse Phase (RP) HPLC method was successfully developed and validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, LOD, LOQ. The polynomial regression data for the calibration plots exhibited linear relationship (r2 = 0.999) over a concentration range of 25–125µg/ml and the linear regression equation was y = 41905x – 53177. The % coefficient of variation for both intra-day and inter-day precision was less than 2%. The good recoveries of MLX were obtained as more than 99%. The proposed method has proven that method is accurate, precise, reproducible and suitable for regulatory flexibility. Download
    • In Vitro Evaluation of Anticancer Activity of Methnaolic Extract of borassus Flabellifer linn. Leaves on Different Human Cancer Cell Lines

      Identification of new anticancer medicinedevoidof life threatening side effects as that of synthetic anticancer drug is the need of today’s cancer treatment. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine is based on plant as a source of medicine. Medicinal plants such as Picrorhiza KurroaRoyle ex Benth., Cetrus deodaraRoxband herbal formulations like Triphala ghrita, Sthauneyaka and Madhusnuhi rasayana are mentioned in the Ayurveda for the treatment of tumour. Plants ofBorrasus family are well known fortheir medicinal and nutritional values.Borassus flabellifer Linn. is traditionally important medicinal plant and is widely distributed in India.The methanolic extractof Borassus flabellifer Linn.was screened against colon cancer (HCT15), Human lung cancer (Hop65) and Human hepatoma (HEPG2) cell lines using SulforhodamineB (SRB) assay. Adriamycin was used as a standard to compare the results of methanolic leaves extract of Borassus flabellifer Linn.The findings revealed that extract do not inhibit growth of these cell lines with no potential anticancer effects. These results indicate that methanolic extract of Borassus flabellifer Linn.is not effective against these cancer cell lines. However, further studies are needed to test extract against other cancer cell lines to reveal its anticancer effect. Download
    • Patient Safety Culture In A Private Indian Dental Institute- A Pilot Study

      Context: Patient safety in dentistry is a critical dimension of healthcare. Dentistry cannot remain on sidelines on the issue of patient safety. Aims: The objective of this study was to describe the patient safety culture among faculty, students (postgraduates, undergraduates and interns) and dental assistants in a private Indian dental Institute. Settings and Design: A survey on patient safety culture developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) was used to measure attitudes of faculty, students and dental assistants working in the clinics of a South Indian Dental Institute, towards the patient safety. Methods and Material: The questionnaire was distributed among faculty, students and dental assistants with printed instructions for completion. Statistical analysis used: SPSS 11.5 was used for statistical analysis. Percentages of responses were calculated for each of the 12 dimensions for safety culture survey among the groups. Item total likert scores were calculated for each dimension. Results: 86% response rate was seen in this survey. ‘Overall Perceptions of safety’ was reported positive by 59% of the respondents. 75% of the respondents reported positive for the category of ‘adverse effects reporting’. ‘Supervisor expectation and actions promoting patient safety’ were reported positive by 65% of respondents. 64% respondents reported positively for ‘Organisational learning/continuous process’. ‘Team works within units’ were reported positive by 71% of individuals. ‘Communication openness’ and ‘Feedback and communication about errors’ were reported positive by 76% and 68% of individuals respectively. ‘Management support’ and ‘team work across units’ were reported positive by 64% and 60% respectively. Categories of ‘Non punitive response to errors’, ‘Staffing’ and ‘transition of patients’ were reported positive by only 26%, 37% and 44% of respondents.Significant differences were seen for age for the dimensions of Organisational learning/continuous process and staffing (p<0.03).Dimensions of ‘Teamwork within units’, ‘Communication openness’ and ‘Feedback and communication about errors’ were significantly higher among males. (p<0.01). Conclusions: Positive perception regarding patient safety was less amongst interns and undergraduate students as compared to the faculty. Download
    • Pre Clinical Toxicity Evaluation of Recombinant Pegylated Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (Rh PEG-GCSF)

      Recombinant protein technology produces drugs for human therapy in unprecedented quantity and quality. Pegfilgrastim is in a class of medications called colony stimulating factors. It works by helping the body make more neutrophils. The aim of the present study is to carry preclinical toxicity study on Acute toxicity and Skin sensitization study by using recombinant Pegylated Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor in rats and mice-Acute toxicity study and Guine pigs – skin sensitization test. The objective is to assess the safety profile of rh PEG-GCSF in Swiss albino mice and Sprague Dawley rats and guinea pigs for the treatment of cancer based on the guidelines of EMEA & DBT. In the present study the preclinical toxicity study is carried by conducting Acute Toxicity Study & Guinea Pig Skin Maximisation Test. There was no mortality or morbidity observed during the 14 days study period. No toxic signs and abnormal behaviour was observed in the Group III (Intravenous) and Group IV (subcutaneous) animals, which were exposed to the test compound at 10 times of intended therapeutic dose. There was no mortality or morbidity observed during the 14 days study period. No toxic signs and abnormal behaviour was observed in the Group I (Intravenous) and Group II (subcutaneous) animals, which were exposed to the test compound at 10 times of intended therapeutic dose. On the basis of the results, interpreted according to GPMT Magnusson/Kligman and OECD TG 406, the skin sensitization test in guinea pigs, the substance “rh G-CSF” –pegfilgrastim must be considered as non sensitizer for skin. Download
    • Development And In vitro Evaluation of PLGA Microsphere of Docetaxel

      Breast-targeting docetaxel loaded (polylactic-co-glycolic) acid microsphere were prepared by a solvent evaporation method. The uniform design was used to optimize the technology of preparation, the appreance and size distribution were examined by scanning electron microscope, and the aspect such as in vitro release characteristics, stability drug loading efficiency. The experimental result show that the microspheres were globular in appearance and disperse well the average particle size decrease form is 24.49±0.38.49 micro-meter to 4.99+ 0.11micrometer. The drug loading efficiency decrease75.01±1.2% to81.2±1.9% respectively. The in vitro release behaviour could be expressed by the drug release rate decrese from 90% to 84% with increasing amount of PLGA during preparation. The drug release rate increase from 81% to 98% with the increase in stirring rate from 200to800 RPM. Stability studies were carried out with selected formulation period of 45-Daysmicrospheres was found to increase slightly. Download
    • Antimicrobial Activity of Aloe Vera Formulation

      With the increasing incidence of diseases and development of antibiotic resistance, the alternative, safe, effective, and economical products are the need of time. Proven in multiple clinical studies, Aloe vera has been used in antimicrobial activity and used in mouth ulcers, periodontal diseases etc. In this present study Mucoadhesive film was prepared to study antimicrobial activity, to improve therapeutic efficacy by its adhesive action. The present study discusses the estimation of the antimicrobial activity of Aloe vera loaded mucoadhesive films. The formulation was studied for percent inhibition of microorganism of inflammed tissue, Calculas, and cultures of S.oralis, C.albicans, S.mutans. The formulation showed Percent inhibition of Candida albicans more when compared with standard Chlorhexidine. The film prepared is economic, convenient and shows the antimicrobial activity. Download
    • Phytosomes: An Emerging Nanotechnology For Improved Bioavailability of Phytomedicines – A Review

      Novel complexation technique named as `phytosome’ plays an important role to facilitate absorption and improve bioavailability. The delivery of phytomedicine is always challenging due to poor aqueous solubility, poor permeation, low systemic availability and extensive first pass metabolism. Drug molecules from natural sources and dietary soy phospholipids are complexed and generated cell like structures called phytosomes. Phytosome act as a bridge between novel delivery system and conventional delivery system and has effectively enhanced the bioavailability of many popular herbal extracts including milk thistle, Ginko biloba, grape seed, green tea, hawthorn, Ginseng etc and can be developed for various therapeutic uses or as dietary supplements. Current review highlights recent information, on commercial preparation of phytosomes as well as the various other novel approaches for delivery of herbal constituents. Download
    • Resealed Erythrocytes: A Novel Drug Delivery System

      Now days the research work in the drug development is mainly focusing on targeted drug delivery for better therapeutic effect. Carrier erythrocytes have been evaluated in thousands of drug administration in humans proving safety and efficacy of the treatments. Carrier erythrocytes, resealed erythrocytes loaded by a drug or other therapeutic agents, have been exploited extensively in recent years for both temporally and spatially controlled delivery of a wide variety of drugs and other bioactive agents owing to their remarkable degree of biocompatibility, biodegradability and a series of other potential advantages. Biopharmaceuticals, therapeutically significant peptides and proteins, nucleic acid-based biologicals, antigens and vaccines, are among the recently focused pharmaceuticals for being delivered using carrier erythrocytes. In this review article, the potential applications of erythrocytes in drug delivery have been reviewed with a particular stress on the studies and laboratory experiences on successful erythrocyte loading and characterization of the different classes of biopharmaceuticals. Download
    • A Review: Synthesis And Docking Study of Biologically Active Esters

      From many years chemists have been taking interests in synthesizing different kinds of ester derivatives due to their increasing medicinal importance. Lots of newer ester derivatives have different biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tuberculosis, antimicrobial, antifungal etc. Chemists have prepared different bioactive ester drugs by using various methods and also carried out molecular modeling in silico of ester drug candidates with proteins (receptor) to predict bonding interactions of ester drugs with proteins responsible for that particular disease using computational methods. By finding all the results from docking one can predict the biological activities of the compounds under the study. Download
    • Analgesic Efficacy of Morphine Versus Concurrent Use of Ketorolac and Acetaminophen In Mandibular Bone Surgery

      Background: Pain, a major issue in medical treatment, is one of the major concerns for both the clinician and the patient. Postoperative acute pain management during the initial hours is very important and can prevent side effects. Analgesics (acetaminophen, opioids) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used as medications for pain control. Objective: This study was performed to compare the analgesic efficacy of morphine versus the concurrent use of ketorolac and intravenous acetaminophen after mandibular bone surgery. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, single-centered, randomized, double-blind clinical trial study, a total of 60 patients referred to Imam Reza Hospital in 2015 for mandibular bone surgery were randomized post-surgery into two groups: In group 1, acetaminophen (1 g in 100 cc normal saline solution) and ketorolac (30 mg in 100 cc normal saline solution) were infused every 6 hours. In group 2, morphine sulfate (0.1 mg/kg in 100 cc normal saline solution) was infused every 4 hours. The pain level was recorded on the visual analogue scale (VAS) at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery. Results: Significant differences were found between the two groups in most hours. The mean pain level according to the VAS in group 1 and group 2 were 6.87±2.43 vs.7.20±2.06 (p = 0.560) for the 1st hour post operation, 5.80±2.76 vs. 4.03±2.25 (p = 0.008) for the 2nd hour post operation, 5.03±3.01 vs. 3.10±2.11 (p = 0.005) for the 4th hour post operation, 3.37±3.03 vs. 1.77±1.92 (p = 0.017) for the 6th hour post operation, 2.10±2.44 vs. 0.73±1.28 (p = 0.008) for the 12th hour post operation and 1.30±1.91 vs. 0.60±1.28 (p = 0.101) for the 24th hour post operation. No significant difference was observed in the 1st and 24th hour post-operation. Nausea was seen in the groups as one of the side effects with no significant difference. Conclusion: Morphine showed better efficiency in pain control than the concurrent use of ketorolac and intravenous acetaminophen. Download
    • Investigation of Antiangiogenic Activity of Cassia Fistula Extract In Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane Model

      Plant which harbors curative elements or properties in one or more of its parts may be termed has medicinal plant. Plant based medicaments have been employed since the dawn of civilization for prolonging the life of man for combating against various body ailments. So medicinal plants like Cassia Fistula have their different pharmacological activities so they are cultivating in many places of India. Cassia fistula has been reported to have different pharmacological effects like Anti-inflammatory, Antifungal activity, Antibacterial Activity, Antihelminthic Activity along with these effects it also has Antiangiogenic effect. Which used in the treatment of cancer. The study was conducted to investigate the scientific basis for the traditional use of Cassia fistula by determining its Antiangiogenic effect in chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM assay). Cassia fistula was evaluated for antiangiogenic activity by chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM assay). Antiangiogenic effect was assessed using Cassia fistula induced hypotensive rat. Antiangiogenic effect was evaluated in hypotensive rat, in comparison to control group with the standard (salicylic acid) and test (Cassia fistula) group showed significant activity. Antiangiogenic activity was evaluated in CAM assay, in comparison to control group with the test group showed significant activity of less angiogenesis. From the present study it can be concluded that ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula shown Antiangiogenic activity. Download
    • Preparation and Evaluation of Myoconductive ECG Gel

      Hydrogel formulation provides better application property and stability. Hydrogels are the swellable polymeric materials, have been widely investigated as the carrier for drug delivery systems. The hydrogel can be defined as a cross-linked polymeric network which has the capacity to hold water within its porous structure. Conductive gel used in electrocardiography. The electrode gel greatly affects the signals from the skin to electrode. Hydrogel should be greaseless, odourless and non-staining. In addition to getting information about cardiac status, respiratory rate monitoring and ventilator triggering are possible from ECG gel. The gel can be easily removed after use. Hydrogels are the semi-rigid systems in which the movement of the dispersing medium is restricted by an interlacing three-dimensional network of particles or solvated macro-molecules in the dispersed phase. Physical and /or chemical cross-linking may be involved. The interlacing and consequential internal friction is responsible for increased viscosity and the semisolid state. Gels are evaluated by following parameters such as pH, viscosity, spreadability, skin irritation studies, sound speed, electric impendence, sound attenuation , sound impendence frequency. Download
    • Recent Developments In Insulin Delivery For The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

      Diabetes mellitus is a chronic lifelong condition which affects millions of people in the world. The main cause of this disease is the pancreas will not producing insulin, “a hormone which regulates blood glucose level in the body”, will leads to severe vascular complications and leads to death. The one and only way of survive against this disease is to provide exogenous insulin in our body. The conventional mode of delivering the exogenous insulin is by subcutaneous route by needles or injections which produces painful and invasive therapy leads to poor patient compliance. So various methods are developed for delivering the exogenous insulin in our body like inhaled insulin (Exubera), transdermal patch, insulin infusion pump and insulin sprays and insulin pills are available which uniform maintain blood glucose level in the body for several hours leads to increased patient compliance, So in present review we highlighted the novel methods of insulin delivery for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Download
    • Formulation and Evaluation of Transdermal Patches of Antihypertensive Drug

      Transdermal therapeutic system are defined as self-contained, discrete dosage forms, which when applied to the intact skin, deliver the drug(s), through the skin, at a controlled rate to the systemic circulation so that it can improve the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the drugs. Through a diffusion process the drug enters the bloodstream, directly through the skin. The main disadvantages to transdermal delivery systems stems from the fact that the skin is a very effective barrier, as a result only medications whose molecules are small enough to penetrate the skin can be delivered. The purpose of this study was to develop suitable matrix transdermal therapeutics system of atenolol with different proportions of Ethyl cellulose (EC) and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl cellulose (HPMC). Five formulations were prepared by solvent casting method. The prepared patched showed satisfactory physiochemical characteristics of weight uniformity, thickness, folding endurance, moisture lost, moisture absorption for stability of the formulation and drug content were uniform in all patches. Invitro study done by using Franz diffusion cell having cellophane membrane to determine the amount of drug present in the formulation patch. In different formulation on the basis of evaluation parameters and by optimization study formulation F4 shows satisfactory drug release pattern. Download
    • Comparative Study of Allium Cepa, Zingiber Officinale And Allium Sativum for Its Antimicrobial Property

      Antibiotic resistant bacteria are one of the major problems challenging the health care system in general. The antibacterial activity of fresh red and white Allium cepa (Onion) and Zingiber officinale (Ginger), garlic (Allium Sativum) juices against multidrug resistant bacteria viz: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Aerobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaricus pure cultures were investigated using agar well diffusion and agar dilution methods. All the bacteria were susceptible to the fresh garlic and white onion juice with the diameter of zones of inhibition ranging from 1.3cm-5.5cm while the test bacteria were not sensitive to the fresh ginger juice. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (M. I. C.) of garlic were low in ranging from 1.125 – 25 %v/v and that of white onion was 2.125- 50%v/v. This study indicates that the fresh juices of white onion (Allium cepa) and garlic possess significant antibacterial potency against multidrug resistant bacteria. Download
    • Impact of a Physician - Clinical Pharmacist Collaborative Approach on Improving the Clinical Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

      Aims: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a clinical pharmacist-physician collaborative practice compared with usual care on improving outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 80 patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (HbA1c < 7%) at a teaching hospital in Yemen. Patients were randomly allocated into control and intervention group. The intervention group patients received pharmaceutical care interventions developed by the clinical pharmacist in collaboration with the physician while the control group patients received usual care without clinical pharmacist’s input. Results: After the nine months follow-up, there was statically significant in a mean reduction of HbA1c between groups of this study (2.8 % in the intervention group versus 1.8 % in the control; P = 0.009). In addition, the study findings showed that the most commonly identified drug related problems were the inappropriate knowledge about the time of drug administration (20.4 %). Conclusions: The results suggest the benefits of integrating clinical pharmacist services in multidisciplinary healthcare team of diabetes management. Download
    • Optimization of Formulation of Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System Containing Atenelol

      Floating dosage form is an oral dosage form that is designed to prolong the residence time of dosage form within the GI tract. It is formulation of a drug and gel forming hydrocolloids meant to remain buoyant on stomach contents. The purpose of this investigation was to optimize the formulation of gastroretentive drug delivery system of Atenelol. Atenelol is a drug of choice for the treatment of hypertension and it is a ß-1 cardio selective adrenergic receptor blocker. Optimization of formulation of floating tablets of Atenelol was done depending upon three different factors such as controlled drug release of drug, floating characteristics and hardness of tablets. This was carried out by studying the effect of different proportions of the polymers, effervescent and different compression pressure. Semi-synthetic polymers HPMC-K100M and a natural polymer, Xanthan gum were used to assess the effect on the release of drug. Dicalcium phosphate was used as a channeling agent. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a gas generating agent. Evaluation of powder blends like angle of repose, bulk density, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio was evaluated. Atenelol floating tablets were evaluated for In vitro dissolution and floating lag time. Evaluation of tablets i.e. diameter, thickness, friability, hardness, average weight and content uniformity were performed. Drug release from the tablets was sufficiently sustained. Download
    • Formulation And Evaluation of Medicated Chewing Gum Containing Caffeine Salicylate

      Caffeine salicylate shows more CNS stimulant activity than caffeine along with mild analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions. Caffeine salicylate was synthesized in Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, Satara College of Pharmacy, Satara. Chewing gum formulation was prepared in tablet form by using direct compression method. Lecithin was used as an emulisifier and sorbitol as a softner and synthetic gum base along with other excipients. Nine different formulations were prepared by changing the concentration of emulsifier and softner. Evaluation of tablets i.e. diameter, thickness, friability, hardness, average weight, content uniformity, stickiness and dissolution study were performed. A 32 full factorial design was selected and the 2 factors were evaluated at 3 levels. The amount of sorbitol (X1) and lecithin (X2) were selected as independent variables and the dependent variables were hardness and percent drug release at 30 min (%DR30min). The data obtained was treated using Stat-Ease Design Expert 8.0.7.1 software and analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Download
    • A Review On Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC)

      In recent years, significant technological advances have been made in particle chemistry performance, system optimization, detector design, and data processing and control. When brought together, the individual achievements in each discipline have created a step-function improvement in chromatographic performance. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) is a new category of analytical separation science that retains the practicality and principles of HPLC, while increasing the overall interlaced attributes of speed, sensitivity and resolution. UPLC can be regarded as a new direction for liquid chromatography. UPLC improves in three areas: “speed, resolution and sensitivity”. In this system uses fine particles (less than 2.5 μm) so decrease the length of column, saves time and reduces solvent consumption. Download
    • Phytosomes: Magnifying Power of Herbal Extract- An Systematic Overview

      In the recent days, most of the prevailing diseases and nutritional disorders are treated with natural medicines. Several plant extracts and phyto constituents, despite having excellent bioactivity in vitro demonstrate less or no in vivo actions due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size or both, resulting in poor absorption and bioavailability. So, much work has been directed towards the development of new concept in herbal delivery system i.e., phytosomes which are better absorbed, utilized and as a result produce better results than conventional herbal extracts. Phytosomes often known as herbosomes. The term phyto means plant while some means cell-like. Phytosomes are little cell like structure. Phytosome is composed of phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine, producing a lipid compatible molecular complex with other constituents. Phytosomal complexes were first investigated for cosmetic applications. But phytosome process was developed and patented by Indena, a leading supplier of nutraceutical ingredients like milk thistle, ginkgo biloba, grape seed, green tea, hawthorn, ginseng etc. Phytosomes are superior to liposomes due to complex formation ratio of component and phospholipids is 2:1 and 1:1 respectively, much better absorption and stability profile. Development of phytosomes is at the budding stages in India and abroad. It has a lot of potential in the field of medicine, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Download
    • Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants Used In the Treatment of Skin Diseases in Abeokuta South Local Government of Ogun State Nigeria

      The ethnobotanical survey of the plants used traditionally for treating skin diseases was conducted in Abeokuta South Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The administration of semi-structured questionnaire and oral interviews methods were employed. Herb sellers, Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMPs), aged people and local farmers were the targeted audience. Plant specimens were collected and identified at the Forestry herbarium, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta. A total of 80 plants species belonging to 42 families were found to be useful in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema, pimples, boils, rashes, measles, small pox, wounds and chicken pox. The family Fabaceae provided the largest number of plant species (Thirteen) followed by Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae, Compositae, and Moraceae with (six, four, three, three plants species respectively). Examples of some plants in these families are: Rauvolfia vomitoria, Vernonia amygdalina, Senna alata, Argemone mexicana which were found to be very important in the recipes based on their frequency of occurrence in the herbal preparation. The main methods of preparation of these herbal recipes were decoction and infusion. Leaves formed the major plant part used (76.3%) followed by stem (11.3%). The survey revealed that residents of this area view herbal treatment as more effective and cheaper compared to orthodox medicine. The medicinal plants used by the people in this area form a rich source of indigenous knowledge which can play a role for therapeutic purposes. Download
    • Assessment of Select Heavy Metals In Serum of Wistar Rats Administered with Fake Paracetamol Syrup

      A number of chemical adulterants or contaminants have been identified in paracetamol syrup in Nigeria, one of the most common ones being diethylene glycol. The presence of heavy metals in therapeutic preparations has also been reported in other parts of the world, with devastating consequences. The aim of this experimental work is to investigate the level of Cd, Pb, Al, Si, Ni, As, in the serum of rats administered with fake paracetamol syrup. Twenty-one female rats of average weight of 200 g were randomly divided into 3 groups of 7 rats each. Treatment lasted 21 days and the route of administration was by gastric gavage. The first group received 90 mg/kg of fake Bonadabe paracetamol, the second group was administered with 90 mg/kg BW of genuine Bonadabe® paracetamol and the third group served as the control. Statistical analysis of data obtained using analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed there were no significant differences in the serum levels of all the heavy metals investigated at p>0.05. Results of this study suggest that heavy metal contamination of pediatric drugs may not be common in Nigeria, although such contaminations have been reported for other preparations in some parts of the world. Download
    • Analysis Of Different Teaching Methodologies Applied In Undergraduate Programmes At Various Academic Institutions In Muscat A Survey Based Research

      Undergraduate students have the main responsibility for planning, implementing, and evaluating their effort in self-directed learning. It is an adult learning technique that assumes that the learner knows best what their educational needs are. The facilitator’s role is not only to support in self-directed learning is to support students in identifying their needs and goals for the program, but also to contribute to clarifying the students' directions and objectives and to offer timely feedback. Within the context of self-directed learning, adults can seek out and participate in a variety of teaching methods. It is important to give students opportunities to apply and reflect on lecture material during course time. Most educators agree that lectures are necessary, but that they should be limited in number and well delivered. The aim of this paper is to find out a suitable educational method to get expected educational objectives or learning outcomes from the students. Download
    • Formulation and Evaluation of Moisturizer Prepared from Natural Sources

      Moisturizers are bland oleaginous substances that are used to replace natural skin oils, to cover tiny fissures in the skin, and to provide a soothing protective film. Moisturizers are used in various diseases like Psoriasis, Menopause and in skincare during chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to formulate moisturizer using natural sources and evaluation of in vitro moisture retention. As. there is several disadvantages of chemical based moisturizer; so polymers, mineral oil, petroleum is replaced with Black sesame oil and Pure ghee as it have several benefits. Black sesame oil contains Vitamin E acts as excellent antioxidant which is useful as natural sunscreen moisturizer and Ghee has natural retinol (vitamin A) in it that helps in repairing skin. In-vitro moisture retention was compared between Black sesame oil, Pure ghee and glycerin. Both ingredients showed comparable moisture retention than the glycerin. Moisturizers are formulated using black sesame oil and pure ghee and; evaluated for various parameter. In-vitro comparison of moisture retention of natural moisturizers is done with marketed preparation and both preparations also showed moderate moisture. Download
    • Serum Heavy Metal Study In Female Wistar Rats Administered With Counterfeit Neurobion

      Purpose: While trace elements are known for the very important role they play as cofactors of diverse biochemical reactions, heavy metal on the other hand have been recognized for their toxic effects and the fact they do not carry out any meaningful role that is beneficial to a living mammalian system. Yet exposure has been reported through different sources, exposure through fake drug administration being one of them. The aim of the present study is to determine the serum levels of Cd, Pb, Al, Si, Hg, Ni, and As in 12-14 weeks old female Wistar rats administered with fake neurobion tablets at 30 mg/kg level. Method: Twelve of the eighteen rats used for the study were divided equally into 2 groups and administered with either 30 mg/kg BW fake neurobion or genuine products. Six other rats served as the control. Route of administration was by gastric gavage and blood was obtained through retro-orbital bleeding. Serum levels of arsenic, cadmium, aluminum, silicon, lead, mercury, and nickel were estimated by the atomic absorption spectrometric method. Statistical analysis was carried out on data obtained using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Differences were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Of all the heavy metals assessed, none was significantly different. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that the absence of the heavy metals in the fake neurobion used for the present study. Download
    • Antiurolithiatic activity of InjiRasayanam: A Siddha Formulation

      Aqueous extract of Inji Rasayanam, was carried out to investigate antiurolithiatic activity by calcium oxalate crystallization was induced by the addition of 0.01M sodium oxalate solutions in synthetic urine and nucleation method.. The effect of Inji Rasayanam on calcium oxalate crystallization (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 μg/ml) was studied by time course measurement of turbidity in presence or absence of inhibitor (extract) at 620 nm for ten minutes by means of a spectrophotometer. Aqueous extract of Inji Rasayanam exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation. Download
    • Antinociceptive and Neuroprotective Activity of Withania Somnifera (WS) Extract In Rat Model of Vincristine Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

      Peripheral neuropathy is defined as damage to the peripheral nervous system resulting in a syndrome of sensory loss, muscle weakness and atrophy along with vasomotor symptoms, alone or in any combination. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the Antinociceptive and neuroprotective activity of Withania somnifera (WS) extract in rat model of Vincristine induced peripheral neuropathy. This study accomplished that the WS extract improved body weights of the rats which were changed during the experiment, nociceptive threshold estimated to the extent of neuropathic pain by assessing the screening procedures; paw and tail cold allodynia, tail immersion, tail flick, paw heat hyperalgesia, motor in-co-ordination and mechanical hyperalgesia. Withania somnifera extract reversed the vincristine induced anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia in rats assessed by estimating the parameters- RBC, WBC, Haemoglobin percentage, hematocrit, platelet count and MCV. Vincristine induced oxidative stress (increased TBARS and decreases gluthathione) was attenuated by WS extract which was estimated in sciatic nerve homogenate. The nerve fiber dearrangement which was seen in the histopathological study of sciatic nerve samples against the vincristine induced peripheral neuropathy was reversed by Withania somnifera extract. Administration of WS extract attenuated the physical, behavioral, hematological, biochemical, histopathological parameters in vincristine induced neuropathy. Withania somnifera extract administration is claimed to be useful in the treatment of pain associated with peripheral neuropathy which may be attributed to antinociceptive, immunomodulator, antioxidant, neuroprotective activities supports the ethno-pharmacological activity of WS. Download
    • Peripheral Neuropathy & Animal Models of Peripheral Neuropathy: A Review

      Peripheral neuropathy is defined as damage to the peripheral nervous system resulting in a syndrome of sensory loss, muscle weakness and atrophy along with vasomotor symptoms, alone or in any combination. There are more than 100 known types of peripheral neuropathy, each with its own characteristic symptoms, pattern of development, and prognosis. One study estimated that the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in the family medicine setting is 8 percent in persons 55 years and older. The prevalence in the general population may be as high as 2.4 percent. A community-based study estimated the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to be 26.4 percent. Peripheral neuropathy may be either inherited or acquired. Causes of acquired peripheral neuropathy include physical injury (trauma) to a nerve, tumors, toxins (Lolin Y, 1989), autoimmune responses, nutritional deficiencies, alcoholism (Ammendola A et al, 2001), and vascular and metabolic disorders. Symptoms are related to the type of affected nerve and may be seen over a period of days, weeks, or years. Muscle weakness is the most common symptom of motor nerve damage. Diagnosing peripheral neuropathy is often difficult because the symptoms are highly variable. A thorough neurological examination is usually required and involves taking an extensive patient, performing tests that may identify the cause of the neuropathic disorder, and conducting tests to determine the extent and type of nerve damage. The review focused on the drugs used to treat peripheral neuropathy. It included the Nutritive supplements, Topical Capsaicin Cream, Acupuncture, Magnets, Minerals & Drugs. The different animal models of the peripheral neuropathy also reviewed . Download
    • The Relationship between Clinical Governance and performance indicators in Iranian Hospitals

      ABSTRACT Introduction: Healthcare organizations are complicated and their structures, processes and management are of high significance for promoting the quality of clinical care. Clinical governance, as a healthcare quality improvement instrument, detects the complications and tries to solve some of the problems through providing integrated, comprehensive strategies and moving toward quality improvement. The main purpose of present study was to determine the relationship between clinical governance and performance indicators in Iranian hospitals. Methods: The present study was conducted at 16 hospitals (N=16) and their clinical governance performance was evaluated using the Treatment Deputy of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) checklist containing all items of the seven clinical governance pillars and their scores; in the end, the total scores of the seven pillars were calculated and considered as the hospital’s score. Performance indicators were also obtained from the statistics department of the hospitals under study. The Pearson and Spearman correlation tests were used to determine the presence of a relationship between clinical governance and hospital performance indicators. Results: The mean score of the overall performance of clinical governance in the investigated hospitals was 817.93 of 1116 total score; the hospitals were at moderate level considering the performance indicators from March 2012 to March 2013. The maximum correlations belonged to risk management and patient safety(r=0.708, P=0.002)and the minimum was between management and leadership (r=0.505, P=0.046). Conclusion: There was no statistically meaningful relationship between clinical governance and performance indicators of the studied hospitals. Among the seven aspects, risk management and patient safety, use of information, management and leadership as well as clinical audit were positively and significantly associated with clinical governance performance. Download
    • Remembering Cyclooxygenases: A Brief Review

      Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the competitive inhibitors of cyclooxygenase, the enzyme which bioconvert the arachidonic acid to inflammatory prostaglandins. Although their use is associated with the side effects such as gastrointestinal and renal toxicity they are one of the widely prescribed drugs. The therapeutic anti-inflammatory action of NSAIDs is produced by the inhibition of COX-2, while the undesired side effects arise from inhibition of COX-1 activity. Based upon that, a number of selective COX-2 inhibitors (Rofecoxib, Celecoxib, Valdecoxib etc.) were developed as safer NSAIDs. However, the recent market removal of some COXIBs such as Rofecoxib due to its adverse cardiovascular side effects clearly encourages the researchers to explore and evaluate alternative templates with COX-2 inhibitory activity. Recognition of new avenues for selective COX-2 inhibitors in cancer chemotherapy and neurological diseases such as Parkinson and Alzheimer’s diseases still continues to attract investigations on the development of COX-2 inhibitors. This review highlights the therapeutic profile as well as the future therapeutic potential of COX inhibitors with highlighting their disadvantages as well. Download