The basic principles of genetics were laid down by GREGOR MENDEL AND FRANCIS GALTON towards the close of 19th century. But, it is only during the past few years the science of genetics and human genetics has made rapid progress. The discovery of biologic role of nucleic acids, the uncovering of the structure of the genetic information and its role in regulating life processes are discoveries, the importance of which can hardly be overestimated. Human genetics is much more than the study of mere hereditary diseases. It has emerged as a basic biological science for understanding the endogenous factors in health and disease. Owing to the rapid specialization, several branches in genetics have come into being examples – Cytogenetics, Clinical genetics, Biochemical genetics, Pharmacogenetics, Immunogenetics, Population genetics and so on. Achievements in these fields have created a basis for effective medical and preventive intervention in many diseases and also possibly of “Genetic Engineering” that is of controlling the traits of an individual.
Suvarna V Biradar